37. Happy Halloween! The Tale of the McQueen Candles

Readers of this blog know that my ancestral McQueens, of Pollochaig, co. Inverness, Scotland, had a reputation of the supernatural. Two Halloweens ago I related the story of the McQueen witch (“18. Witches, Wizards, Ghosts, and Things That Go Bump in the Night”). This year I’d like to relay the tale of the McQueen candles, complete with an abducted wife, fairy enchantments, and otherworldly revenge — and for my ancestors, the loss of their magical candles.

The story was recorded in 1835. I know it from its reproduction 60 years later. I have only lightly edited that telling, deleting a few words and splitting long paragraphs into shorter ones for ease of reading. Enjoy!


Reproduced nearly verbatim from Transactions of the Gaelic Society of Inverness, vol. 20, pp. 35-7, 1894-6.


About the beginning of the 18th century the wife of one of the tenants in Druim-a-ghadha, upon the estate of Dunmaglass, had been carried away by the fairies, and was said to have been taken by them into a small hillock in that neighbourhood called ‘Tomnashangan,’ or the Ants Hill, and had been absent from her family for nearly a year.

No person, however, could tell exactly where she was, although their suspicion fell upon the fairies, and that she must be with them in the hill now mentioned. Several attempts were made to discover her, and none were bold enough to encounter the residence of the fairies.

At last Captain William Macgillivray, alias the Captain Baan, i.e, ‘White,’ son of Farquhar Macgillivray of Dunmaglass, who was resident at the spot, volunteered his services to endeavour to get the woman released from her long captivity in the ‘Fairy Hill’ if it was possible that she could be there.

The Captain being informed that John Dhu (M’Chuile) Macqueen of Pollachaik was familiar and on good terms with the fairies, and that he had wax candles in which there was a particular virtue, he despatched a messenger to the far-famed Pollachaik for one of his candles in order to assist him in discovering the lost female.

Candles

The candle was given by Pollachaik to the messenger, who got particular instructions never to look behind him until he reached home, otherwise something might happen to him, and he would lose the candle. This person heard so much noise like that of horses and carriages, accompanied with music and loud cries of ‘Catch him, catch him’ at Craiganuan, near Moyhall, that he was so frightened that he could not help looking behind him, and although he saw nothing, he lost the candle, then he made the best of his way home.

A second courier was despatched, who received another candle, and the same injunctions. In coming through the same place as the former, he withstood all the noise he heard there, but at a place near Farr it was ten times worse, and, not being able to withstand taking a peep over his shoulder, he lost the object of his message.

In this predicament it became necessary to send a third bearer to Pollachaik for another candle, which he also got, but on coming to the River Findhorn, it was so large that he could not cross, so that he was obliged to go back to the Laird [John Macqueen] for his advice, who, upon coming down to the bank of the river, desired the man to throw a stone upon the opposite side of the river, and no sooner was this done than much to his astonishment he found himself also there.

IMG_7287
The River Findhorn at Pollochaig

He then proceeded upon his journey, and having taken a different route across the hills, even here he occasionally heard considerable noise, but he had the courage never to look behind him, and accordingly he put the virtued candle into the hands of the Captain Baan.

The Captain being now possessed of Pollochaik’s wax candle, he one evening approached the hillock, and having discovered where the entry was, he entered the passage to the fairy habitation, and passing a press [tight place] in the entrance, it is said that the candle immediately lighted of its own accord, and he discovered that the good lady, the object of his mission, was busily engaged in a reel, and the whole party singing and dancing, and dressed in neat green jackets, bedgowns, &c.

The Fairy Dance.cropped
The Fairy Dance, by Robert Alexander Hillingford

The Captain took her out of one of the reels, and upon obtaining the open air, he told her how very unhappy her husband and friends were at the length of time she had been absent from them, but the woman had been so enchanted and enraptured with the society she had been in, that she seemed to think she had been only absent one night, instead of a year, from her own house.

When the Captain brought her off with him, the fairies were so enraged that they said ‘they would keep him in view.’ The woman was brought to her disconsolate husband, and the candle was faithfully preserved in the family for successive generations in order to keep off all fairies, witches, brownies and water kelpies in all time to come.

Some time afterwards, as the Captain was riding home at night by the west end of Lochduntelchaig, he was attacked and severely beaten by some people he could not recognise. He got home to his own house, but never recovered, and it is said that the mare he rode was worse to him than even those that attacked him; so he ordered her to be shot the following day…

The third and successful bearer of the candle was Archibald Macgillivray alias ‘Gillespie Luath,’ i.e., Swift or fast Archibald…. Pollochaik said to him that he would have preferred the Captain to have sent for his fold of cattle than for the candle.


The ancestry of John McQueen, of Pollochaig, and of his wife Anne and son Dugal, is extensively traced and referenced in The Omnibus Ancestry (available for download at Lulu).


Picture credits:

Candles — Public domain.

The River Findhorn — Personal photo.

The Fairy Dance — Public domain.

 

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36. Revisiting the McQueen Estate of Pollochaig

The ancestry of Dugal McQueen is extensively traced and referenced in The Omnibus Ancestry (available for download at Lulu).

Recently I came across two antique photographs of Pollochaig (Polochaig) [1], the home of our McQueen ancestors. That was the location in co. Inverness, Scotland, where Dugal McQueen (ca 1670?-1746) was raised before his capture at the Battle of Preston (1715) and his overseas exile to Maryland [2].

Polochaig.buildings.1910
Aerial view of Pollochaig, northward, in 1910

Both photos were taken in 1910, looking northward from elevations that reveal quite a bit of the land associated with the property. The buildings were then in a good state of preservation, unlike in 2016 when my wife and I visited the tumbled-down ruins.

A close inspection of the photographed buildings suggests that most of the interpretation I previously published was basically correct (see “26. A Visit to the Home of the McQueens of Pollochaig”). I wrote of the lower building, the one shown in the first aerial view:

There appeared to be one large chamber with an attached byre…. There was no evidence of a hearth at any of the walls…. Perhaps the structure was simply a barn…

Polochaig.barn.1910.blowup

The intact structure in 1910, shown immediately above though with some blurring due to enlargement, did in fact have a large opening into a byre (animal barn) that comprised at least part of it. It is possible that the opening originally had doors to provide better protection against the elements. The entire structure, in the form of a backward “L”, was clearly unheated, as there were no chimneys. The rightward short leg of the “L” appeared to have an upper door to a hay loft.

Polochaig.house.1910
Aerial view of Pollochaig fields, northward, in 1910

The second elevated picture is of particular interest in showing the house. After viewing its ruins in 2016, I wrote:

On inspection it became apparent that the upper, more distant structure had been a house, because a hearth and the lower remains of a chimney were built into the north end. One entrance, at least, had been through a door on the east side.

Polochaig.house.1910.blowup

That interpretation appears to be correct, although the house also had a hearth at the south end as evidenced by a second chimney. I hadn’t been able to discern its remains in 2016, that end lying in almost complete ruin. The single entrance must have been on the east side, as there are only windows on the west side. It is clear that the house was quite modest, not much more than a cottage.

That in turn raises the question of whether there might have been a grander structure on the site at one time. As it happens, the remains of a much larger structure are in fact evident. They lie directly opposite, across the Findhorn River. They are visible in a blowup from the first picture, shown below.

Polochaig.Shenachie.field.blowup

They also appeared in one of my photographs, as a gray line across the river.

IMG_7272
Shenachie, viewed from Pollochaig

Recently an anonymous visitor interpreted the remains on both sides, having located an informant:

A former local resident, born in 1922 in the glen, reports that although current maps mark Shenachie on the west bank of the river, the ruin was known as Polochaig and it is the grass covered ruins directly opposite over the river that are Shenachie. He says that Shenachie was once occupied by MacQueen, credited with killing the last wolf in the area. [3]

The “MacQueen” so mentioned was Dougal McQueen, our Dugal’s nephew, reputed to have killed Scotland’s last wolf about the year 1743 after it had devoured two children. If the legend is correct, Shenachie only passed into the hands of the McQueens at that time.  For the chief of Mackintosh [4], delighted that Dugal had killed the wolf in a dirk-to-fang struggle aided by a greyhound, is credited with saying:

“My noble Pollochock!” cried the chief in ecstacy; “the deed was worthy of thee! In memorial of thy hardihood, I here bestow upon thee Seannachan, to yield meal for thy good greyhound in all time coming.” [5]

The legend goes on to say that Sennachan was “directly opposite to Pollochock” and that its name means “the old field”.

In modern times, however, “Sennachan” has been transformed to “Shenachie”. In light of the story of the McQueen wolf, and another story about a McQueen witch (see “18. Witches, Wizards, Ghosts, and Things That Go Bump in the Night”), one has to wonder whether Scottish humor was at work in the transformation, for “Shenachie” can be translated as “teller of tales” [6].

Of course Mackintosh’s gift was literally of a field, and so it might be objected that the ruins at Shenachie could have been of a manor house held by the McQueens. This speculation, though, is dashed by the testimony of the traveller who recorded the wolf legend in 1830. He insisted that “the ruins of the interesting little mansion-house of Pollochock” were on the opposite side [5]. Thus it appears that McQueen descendants including me will have to be content with the manor, if it rises to that status, across the river at Pollochaig.

There is actually a hint in the historical record that the visible Shenachie ruins may have been of something other than a building. The following section of an Ordnance Survey map, surveyed in 1869-70, shows the Pollochaig buildings as filled-in polygons, but two larger polygons across the river as unfilled [7]. That probably indicates that they were not buildings at all but rather small, enclosed, rock-walled fields used for penning livestock. There does appear to have been a building represented by a filled-in rectangle between the two enclosures, but it was little, apparently between the sizes of the barn and house at Pollochaig. Possibly it was a sheep shed, with the enclosed fields having been of use during shearing.

Polochaig Ordnance Survey map.date.1869-70.cropped
Portion of an Ordnance Survey map, 1869-70

The same area was shown in a 1900 revision, below. Inexplicably, the Polochaig name had been changed to Shenachie.

Pollochaig.Shenachie.1900.Ordnance Survey
Portion of an Ordnance Survey map, 1900 revision

Also notable on both of the Ordnance Survey maps is a ford, located just south of all the buildings. That ford still existed in 1910, and a blowup of the first aerial view faintly shows a rope strung across the location.

Polochaig.rope.1910.blowup

Showing that some things never change, in 2016 there was a modern rope and pulley system at the same place so that one could, in theory, cross with dry feet while seated. Unfortunately as a visitor has advised:

The rope and pulley system used to cross the river there is kept locked, and the option to wade across at a ford is only possible if the river is low. [3]

My wife and I would certainly not have wanted to ford the river when we visited, for it was on one of the wildest, wettest, coldest days we’ve experienced in a Scottish summer. But now that I know more about the role of Shenachie in McQueen history, namely as a reward won for killing a homicidal wolf, I think I’d like to dip my feet on some upcoming, warm summer day.

I end this article with one last picture, a view of the Findhorn River looking south from Pollochaig. It truly does justify the description in 1897 as ” Pollochaig … a pretty Highland place” [8].

IMG_7287
Southward view from Pollochaig

Notes:

[1] Information retrieved from http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk & linked pages (2017).

[2] Boles, D.B. (2017). The Omnibus Ancestry: 619 Documented American and European Lines. Available for download through Lulu.

[3] Information retrieved from http://www.heritagepaths.co.uk/description.php?path=%20326 (2017).

[4] In 1743 the chief was Angus Mackintosh (d. 1770), a great-grandson of Sir Lachlan Mackintosh (information retrieved from http://www.thepeerage.com/p45051.htm#i450509 & linked pages, 2017), who was also the great-great-grandfather of Dougal McQueen of wolf fame (Boles, 2017, op.cit., & Lulu). The two descendants were therefore 2nd cousins once removed.

[5] The Westminster Review, vol. 13-14, Oct 1830, p. 364.

[6] Information retrieved from http://www.dsl.ac.uk/entry/snd/shenachie (2017).

[7] Satellite imagery available on Google Maps shows the same outlines that appear on the Ordnance Survey maps. The gray line on my modern photo appears to correspond to the upper of the two enclosed polygons.

[8] Fraser-Mackintosh, C. (1897). Antiquarian Notes, Historical, Genealogical, and Social (Second Series): Inverness-shire Parish by Parish. Inverness: A. & W. Mackenzie.


Picture credits:

Aerial view of Pollochaig, northward, in 1910, and blowups: British Geological Survey, image P000376, copyright by Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), used with permission.

Aerial view of Pollochaig fields, northward, in 1910, and blowup: British Geological Survey, image P000375, copyright by Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), used with permission.

Shenachie, taken from Pollochaig: Personal photo.

Portion of an Ordnance Survey map, 1869-70: Modication (sectional blowup) of a map retrieved from http://maps.nls.uk/view/74427045 (2017). Used under an Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International license.

Portion of an Ordnance Survey map, 1900 revision: Modication (sectional blowup) of a map retrieved from http://maps.nls.uk/view/75832309 (2017). Used under an Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International license.

Southward view from Pollochaig: Personal photo.

33. Three Fates at the Battle of Pinkie

The three soldiers mentioned in this article were all direct ancestors, by way of the Bowers descent from the McQueen and Mackintosh families. This descent, and many more stemming from the Mackintoshes, are fully described and referenced in the book The Omnibus Ancestry: 619 Documented American and European Lines. It is available for download through Lulu.  Below, it is referenced as “OA”.

On 16-17 September, the Scottish Battlefields Trust will recreate the 1547 Battle of Pinkie. An announcement appears at http://www.scotsman.com/news/bloody-battle-between-scots-and-english-to-be-staged-again-1-4535901. This promises to be an interesting historical spectacle for those fortunate enough to find themselves in Scotland at the time.

More formally known as the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh, the battle was part of the “Rough Wooing” of Scotland by King Henry VIII of England and his successors, undertaken in part to secure the marriage of the Princess Mary (later the famous Mary, Queen of Scots) to Henry’s son Edward. The battle, fought near Musselburgh, co. Midlothian, Scotland, was between a Scottish army variously estimated at 22,000 to 36,000, and an English army of about 17,000 men.

In spite of its numerical superiority, the poorly positioned Scottish army was subjected to fire from three sides, and the result was slaughter . It continued, in the practice of the time, during the army’s disordered retreat. Some 6000-15,000 Scots were killed and another 2000 taken prisoner, against a few hundred English deaths. The English, however, did not achieve their marriage goal because the Scottish would not agree to terms, and Mary was smuggled out of the country to France [1].

I’d like to highlight three ancestors who are known to have been at the Battle of Pinkie, and who met very different fates.

Archibald Campbell

Archibald Campbell (1502-1558), “the Red”, was the 4th Earl of Argyll. He held a number of offices under King James V of Scotland, including Justice-General, Master of the King’s Household, and Master of the King’s wine-cellar. At the battle of Pinkie, he commanded the right wing with 4000 Highland troops. He is said to have served with distinction, and as a result was rewarded with the greatest share of the estates of the Earl of Lennox, who had joined the English and suffered forfeiture for that reason. Later in life, Archibald joined the Reformed faith under the influence of John Knox. His sword, bearing a 1543 date, was in an Edinburgh museum as of 1884.

We descend from Archibald Campbell by way of a direct Mackintosh intermarriage [OA, 2,3].

Campbell sword
Sword of Archibald Campbell

 John Mackenzie

John Mackenzie (1480-1561) was the 9th chief of Kintail in co. Ross and Cromarty, Scotland. He was a survivor of the Battle of Flodden in 1513, where it is said he was captured but escaped. He was shortly after appointed Guardian of Wester Ross, and sometime after 1538 was a courtier of Mary of Guise, the Queen of King James V of Scotland — and the mother of Mary, Queen of Scots. Answering the muster of the Earl of Arran in 1547, although advanced in years, he was captured at the Battle of Pinkie, and released after payment of a considerable ransom.

We descend from John Mackenzie through a direct Mackintosh intermarriage [OA, 4].

Andrew Halyburton

Andrew Halyburton (ca 1527?-1547) was of Pictur, in Ketting parish on the border of Forfarshire with Perthshire. Very little is known of this young man besides his marriage to Margaret Maule, by whom he had a son George, our ancestor. However, it is known that he died at the Battle of Pinkie, among the thousands of unfortunates to lose their lives in that conflict.

We descend from Andrew Halyburton through Mackintosh -> Graham -> Halyburton linkages [OA].

Please keep these ancestors in mind as we mark the 470th anniversary of the Battle of Pinkie.


Notes:

[1] Information retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Pinkie_Cleugh (2017).

[2] Information retrieved from https://www.revolvy.com/main/index.php?s=Archibald%20Campbell,%204th%20Earl%20of%20Argyll&item_type=topic (2017).

[3] Information retrieved from https://archive.org/stream/historyofcampbel00newy/historyofcampbel00newy_djvu.txt (2017).

[4] Information retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Mackenzie,_9th_of_Kintail (2017).


Picture attribution

Sword of Archibald Campbell: Believed to be in the public domain.

ANCESTRAL LINES AND INTERMARRIAGES in The Omnibus Ancestry, 3rd Edition

ANCESTRAL LINES AND INTERMARRIAGES in The Omnibus Ancestry: 619 Documented American and European Lines. This is the 3rd edition of The Omnibus Ancestry — and likely to be the last for some time, as I have moved on to another writing project.

This book may be previewed at Lulu (http://www.lulu.com/shop/david-boles/the-omnibus-ancestry-619-documented-american-and-european-lines/ebook/product-23158054.html).

THE OMNIBUS ANCESTRY.3rd.Lulu.cover.c

Only the surnames of DIRECT ancestors are shown, with DIRECTLY ANCESTRAL intermarriages in alphabetical order inside parentheses. For instance, the “Bowers Line (Albert, Boles, Jost, Lindeman, Reimbach, Russell, Speece, Yerian)” entry reflects the marriage of Esther L. Bowers with Harold W. Boles, with the other marriages taking place in earlier generations. All of those are family surnames, and are in Esther’s direct ancestral line.

Keep in mind that these families themselves may have had intermarriages. For instance, looking up the Yerian name produces the entry “Yerian/Jurian/Irion Line (Bollin, Bowers, Conradi, Dorn, Fosselman, Haug, Knopf, Pfister)”. In turn each of these may have had intermarriages, and so on. The Omnibus Ancestry covers a web of interconnected families.

However note that in some instances, especially in historical Welsh families, surnames were not used. In those instances the intermarriages are more reflective of personal names than family names. For example, the “Owen Line (Rhys)” entry reflects the marriage of Wenllian ferch Owen, with William ap Rhys (i.e., Wenllian daughter of Owen, with William son of Rhys).

Entries in red reflect additions to the intermarriages index since the one for the 2nd edition.

Abercrombie Line (Rattray)

Abercromby Line (Maule)

Abernethy Line (Borthwick, Ogilvy, Stewart)

Abraham Line (Martin)

Ackerly Line (Oliver)

Addams Line (op den Graeff, Rossiter)

Almot Line (Clenche, Naunton)

Altrate (Altruth, Alteried, Alterriedt) Line (Dick, Ecklin, Schantzenbach)

Amyas Line (Clenche)

Andreas Line (Larsdotter, Nilsson)

Andrews Line (Button)

Arbogast (Lindemann)

Arrants / Arnst Line (Phillips, Price, Smith)

Ashton Line (Byron, Trafford)

Assiter Line (Payne)

Atwood Line (Coons, Fishback)

Auliffe Line (Tomey)

Austin Line (Fleming)

Babb Line (Davis, Hussey, Lewis)

Bachiler / Bachelor Line (Bate, Wing)

Baer / Bare Line (Mylin, Stayman, Witmer)

Bailey Line (McIntire)

Ballow Line (Birkell, Goode, Park/Parker, Read, Ripley)

Banister Line (Chappell)

Barber (James) Line (Readshaw, Stainburne, Stake, Tidmarsh, Wright)

Barber (William) Line (Burnet, Parker)

Barnes Line (Gullett)

Barrier / Berger Line (Kunz, Massey, Reynolds)

Barth / Bard / Bart Line (Boles, Ebert, Hickey, Jost, Malmberg, Nerbel, Rung)

Bartram Line (Cartlidge)

Basset (Thomas of Miscin) Line (Evan, Evans, Fleming, Griffith, Marcross, Morgan, Thomas)

Basset (Thomas of Saint Hilari) Line (Caerdydd, Llywelyn)

Bateman Line (Ellis)

Bauer (Neubecker)

Beaton / Bethune (David) Line (Boswell, Duddingston, Hamilton, Stewart, Stirling)

Beaton / Bethune (John) Line (Boswell, Graham, Monypenny)

Beauchamp Line (St. John, Stourton)

Beaufort Line (Holand, Roet, Stewart)

Beaumont Line (Botreaux, Everingham, Vere)

Becker Line (Messerschmitz, Seegmueller)

Becx Line (Neeff, Diepenbroucks)

Beer Line (Stuell)

Belson Line (Jordan)

Bergen Line (Lubbertsen, Rapelje, Sleght)

Beringer Line (Müller)

Bidel Line (Bruckenfelder, Wagner)

Binford Line (Chappell, Ellyson, Mosby)

Blaugdone / Blackden Line (Brock, Watts)

Bleijck Line (Jans, Nevius)

Bodine Line (Brown, Crocheron, Finch, Sebring)

Boles / Bole Line (Barth, Bowers, Dickison, Foster, Linton, Massey, Painter)

Bollin Line (Irion)

Borthwick Line (Abernethy, Hay)

Bos Line (Leenderts, Maartens, Slecht)

Boswell Line (Bethune, Melville)

Boteler Line (Gerard, Plumpton)

Botreaux Line (Daubeny, Hungerford, Beaumont, St. Lo)

Bourgogne Line (Dampierre, Holland, Kleve)

Bowers / Bauer Line (Albert, Boles, Jost, Lindeman, Reimbach, Russell, Snyder, Speece, Yerian)

Bowman Line (Martin, Robinson)

Boyd Line (Gifford, Gordon, Maxwell, Montgomerie)

Bradshagh Line (St. John)

Brasseur Line (Ellis)

Brereton Line (Savage, Venables)

Brock Line (Blaugdone)

Bromflete Line (Clifford, FitzHugh, Saint John)

Brown (James) Line (Bodine, Drury, Langham, Reynolds, Russell)

Brown (Richard) Line (Davis/Davies, McQueen, Russell, Stevenson, Taylor)

Brown (Thomas) Line (Large, McIntire)

Brownlee Line (McClain, Walcott, Wilson)

Brusyard Line (Naunton)

Buchanan Line (Gray)

Burckhart Line (Hahlman)

Burnett Line (Barber, Gullett, Roberts)

Busch Line (Busch, Scholt)

Buster Line (Foster, Woods)

Button Line (Andrews, Hallyn, Hywel, Ieuan, John)

Cadwalader Line (Ellis, Hugh)

Calder Line (Campbell, Rose, Sutherland)

Campbell (Archibald of Argyll) Line (Campbell, Gordon, Hamilton, Macintosh, Somerville, Stewart, Stuart)

Campbell (Archibald of Auchinbreck) Line (Campbell, Lamont, Scrymgeour, Stewart)

Campbell (Archibald of Cawdor) Line (Calder, Campbell, Grant, Stuart)

Campbell (Duncan) Line (Moncreiffe, Murray, Stewart)

Carnegie Line (Guthrie, Kinnaird, Lindsay, Scrymgeour, Strachan, Vaus)

Cartlidge Line (Bartram, Need, Swan, Swifte, Wright)

Cary Line (Goodale, Hobson, Milner, Pleasants, Taylor)

Chandler Line (Benger, Downham, Jefferis, Smith, Spratt)

Chapman Line (Gill, McFadden)

Chappell Line (Banister, Binford)

Cheyne Line (Rose)

Chichele Line (Barret, Kene, Knolles)

Chicheley Line (Dennis, Gronwy, Maelog)

Chisholm Line (Bisset, Halyburton, Sutherland)

Christ Line (Segmüller)

Clark Line (McCrosky)

Clench / Clenche Line (Almot, Amyas, Dameron)

Clifford Line (Beauchamp, Bromflete, Dacre, Melford, Percy, Ros, Saint John)

Coles Line (Hawxhurst, Townsend)

Colfer Line (Power, Sinnott)

Collet Line (May, Stile, Withers)

Colville Line (Arcy, Wandesford)

Conklin / Conklyn / Conklyn / Concklyne Line (Allseabrook, Robinson, Tarbell, Williams, Youngs)

Conradi Line (Irion, Teichmann)

Cool Line (Van Kouwenhoven)

Coons / Kuntze Line (Atwood, Foster, Hanback, Schuster, Steiger)

Cowdray Line (Rythe)

Cradoc Line (Gwyn, Perrot)

Cranstoun Line (Ruthven)

Crew Line (Ellyson, Gattley)

Crichton Line (Seton)

Crocheron Line (Bodine)

Cunningham Line (Robinson, Tomey)

Dacre Line (Clifford, Neville)

Dafydd (ap Hywel) Line (Hywel, Rhys)

Dafydd (ap Rees) Line (Havard, John, Madog)

Dameron Line (Clench, Gosnold, Smith, Thomas)

David (ap Hopkin) Line (Howel)

David (ap Llewelyn) Line (Gamage)

David (ap Morgan) Line (Gwyn, Morgan, Philip, William)

David (ap Walhin) Line (Price)

David (John) Line (Lewis)

Davis (Nathaniel) Line (Babb, Lewis, Martin, Withers)

Davis (William) Line (Hobson)

Dennis Line (Bere, Gamage, Vaughan)

Denniston Line (Maxwell)

Dick Line (Altrate, McIntire, Neubecker)

Dickison / Dickason / Dickinson Line (Boles, Fowler, Howland, Townsend)

Dietz Line (Stammler)

Domville Line (Hulse)

Dorn Line (Schaeffer, Yerian)

Douglas (Archibald) Line (Graham, Moray, Stewart)

Douglas (George) Line (Graham, Hay, Sibbald, Stewart)

Douglas (Henry) Line (Lindsay, Lovell)

Douglas (James) Line (Halyburton)

Douglas (William of Drumlanrig) Line (Innes, Maxwell, Murray)

Douglas (William of Nithsdale) Line (Sinclair, Stewart)

Downing Line (Ellis, Slack)

Drake Line (Dungan, Oliver)

Dresler Line (Friesenhagen)

Drummond Line (Campbell, Graham, Lindsay, Murray, Ruthven, Sinclair)

Drury Line (Brown, Hayden, Payne)

Duddingston Line (Beaton)

Dunbar Line (Lindsay, Seton)

Dundas Line (Douglas, Moncreiffe, Stewart)

Dungan (Jeremiah) Line (Drake, Hellings, Latham, Smith, Weaver)

Dungan (William) Line (Large, Weaver, Wing)

Durnbläser Line (Wolfer)

Ecklin Line (Alterriedt)

Edmonstone Line (Graham, Shaw, Stewart)

Eger / Ege Line (Friesenhagen)

Ellis (Ellis) Line (Bateman, Cadwalader, Downing, Morgan)

Ellis (Jesse) Line (Brasseur, Foster, Holman, Slack, Veatch)

Ellyson Line (Binford, Crew, Gerard, Hamilton, Jordan, Spence)

Emerson Line (Brewster, Crabbe, Wolcott)

Erb Line (Painter)

Ermentraudt / Armentrout Line (Friedli, Hain, Russell)

Erskine Line (Douglas, Keith, Lindsay)

Evan (ap Evan) Line (Basset, Thomas)

Evan (ap Griffith) Line (David, Griffith)

Evan (ap Llewelyn) Line (Vaughan)

Evan (ap Madoc) Line (David)

Evan (Gitto) Line (Richard)

Evans Line (Basset, Evan, Morgan, Price, Rees, Thomas, Vaughan)

Evered Line (Pleasants, Sellars)

Everingham Line (Beaumont)

Faris Line (McCrosky)

Fearon Line (Robinson)

Ferris Line (Woodson)

Finch Line (Bodine)

Fischbach Line (Heimbach, Lueck)

Fischer Line (Probst)

Fishback Line (Atwood, Hager, Heimbach, Holtzclaw)

FitzHugh Line (Bromflete, Grey, Lescrope)

Fleming (Christopher) Line (Austin, Herbert, Mansel, Meyrick, Thomas)

Flender (Henchen) Line (Busch, Holtzclau, Latsch)

Flender (Henrich) Line (Busch, Holtzklau)

Forbes Line (Douglas, Grant, Keith, Kennedy, Seton, Stewart)

Ford Line (Shercliffe)

Fosselman Line (Probst, Schäffer, Yerian)

Foster Line (Boles, Buster, Coons, Ellis, Parish, Smith)

Foulshurst Line (Gerard, Mainwaring, Vernon)

Fowler Line (Dickinson, Hoyt, Newell)

Friedli Line (Ermentraudt, Saltzgeber)

Friesenhagen Line (Dresler, Eger, Hager)

Gainsford Line (Sidney, White)

Gaisenhofer Line (Goeller)

Gam Line (Gwilim, Ieuan, Vaughan)

Gamage Line (David, Dennis, Evan, Hugh, Rodburgh)

Gattley Line (Crew)

Gerard Line (Boteler, Foulshurst, Slye, Snowe, Stanley, Strangeways, Trafford)

Gill Line (Chapman, Marcey)

Glen Line (Erskine, Ogilvy)

Glencarnie Line (Grant)

Gobels Line (Pletges)

Goeller Line (Gaisenhofer, Greiner, Wagner)

Goode Line (Ballow, Bennett)

Gordon (Adam) Line (Keith, Seton)

Gordon / Seton (Alexander of Huntly) Line (Campbell, Crichton, Fleming, Gordon, Stewart)

Gordon (Alexander of Lochinvar) Line (Boyd, Kennedy, Mackintosh)

Gosnold Line (Dameron, Kebell)

Goushill Line (FitzAlan, Stanley)

Graham (David) Line (Beaton, Douglas, Graham, Halyburton, Lovell, Mackintosh, Ogilvy, Scott)

Graham (Patrick) Line (Douglas, Stewart)

Graham (William) Line (Douglas, Drummond, Erskine, Keith, Murray)

Grant Line (Forbes, Glencarnie, Mackintosh, Murray, Ogilvy, Stewart)

Graver Line (Readshawe)

Gray Line (Forbes, Mortimer, Rollo, Wemyss)

Greiner (Jacob) Line (Goeller, Raquet, Schaff, Scheid)

Greiner (Nicolaus) Line (Golar)

Grey Line (FitzHugh, St. Quintin)

Griffith Line (Gruffudd, Jenkin, Mansel)

Grim Line (Schantzenbach)

Groh Line (Roth, Wagner)

Gruffudd Line (Einion, Rhys)

Guelders Line (Kleve, Leiningen, Stewart, von Arkel)

Gullett Line (Barnes, Burnett, Housh, McClain, Mills, Robinson, Trice)

Guthrie Line (Maule)

Gwilim Line (Mansel, Richard)

Gwilym (ap Jenkin) Line (Gwilym, Llywelyn, Thomas)

Gwilym (ap Philip) Line (Davydd, Llywelyn)

Hager Line (Fishback, Friesenhagen)

Hallyn Line (Button, John, Morgan)

Halyburton (James) Line (Graham, Maule, Scrymgeour)

Halyburton (Patrick) Line (Douglas, Ruthven, Seton)

Hamilton Line (Beaton, Campbell, Douglas, Livingston, Stewart)

Hanback Line (Coons, Jung, Schneider)

Hanscombe Line (Ensam, Samm)

Harbour Line (Packwood, Snyder, Thomas)

Harpway Line (Havard, Howell, Ieuan)

Harrington Line (Loring, Stanley)

Haug Line (Yerian)

Havard (Jenkin) Line (Dafydd, Thomas, Vaughan, Watkin)

Havard (William) Line (Hywel)

Hawxhurst Line (Cole)

Hay (Thomas) Line (Hay, Stewart)

Hay (William) Line (Douglas, Hay)

Hayden Line (Butler, Drury)

Heimbach (Johannes) Line (Fischbach)

Heimbach (Philipp) Line (Fischbach, Otterbach)

Heisdorfer Line (Rung, Weber)

Hellings Line (Dungan, Parsons)

Hendrickse Line (Lubbertsen, Martense)

Henry Line (Boger, Schedler, Spies)

Hepburn Line (Borthwick, Home, Sinclair, Vaux, Wallace)

Herbert Line (Fleming, Morely)

Herr Line (Loetscher, Mylin)

Herries Line (Douglas, Lindsay, Maxwell)

Hickey Line (Barth, Robinson, Russell, Sinnott)

Hieronymus Line (Rimpler)

Hobson Line (Cary, Davis)

Hochstrasser Line (Meili)

Hoffman Line (Probst, Rimpler)

Holbrook Line (Weaver)

Holland (Albrecht) Line (Bourgogne, Brieg)

Holland (Edmund) Line (FitzAlan, Plantagenet, Touchet)

Hollingsworth Line (Atkinson, Ree, Withers)

Holman / Hahlman / Heilmann Line (Burckhart, Ellis, Rudolph)

Holtzclaw Line (Fishback, Flender, Otterbach)

Home Line (Hay, Hepburn, Lauder, Pepdie)

Houghton Line (Stanley)

Hoult Line (Jolliffe, Shircliffe)

Housh Line (Gullett)

Howel (ab Evan) Line (Gibbon)

Howel (ap David) Line (Eva, Hywel, Llywelyn, Richard)

Howland Line (Dickinson, Tilley)

Hoyt Line (Fowler)

Hulse Line (Bruen, Domville, Vernon)

Hungerford Line (Botreaux, Hussey, Peverell, White)

Hurst Line (Marshe, Tilley)

Hussey Line (Babb, Bachiler, Perkins, Wood)

Hyde Line (Lidiard, Lovingcotte, Yate)

Hywel Line (David, Ieuan, Morgan)

Ieuan (ap Gruffudd) Line (Button, Gawdyn)

Ieuan (ap Gwilym) Line (Rhys)

Ieuan (ap Jenkin) Line (Harpway)

Innes Line (Douglas, Fraser, Ogilvy)

Jacobsdochter Line (Jacobsdr, Van Kouwenhoven)

Jefferis Line (Chandler, Nowell, Roberts)

John (ab Ieuan) Line (Button, Gwilym, Thomas)

John (ap Jeffrey) Line (Dafydd, Havard, Owain, Rees)

John (ap Morgan) Line (Kemeys, Thomas)

Jenkin Line (Gruffudd, Llewelyn, Nicholas)

Jolliffe Line (Hoult, Sheppard, Slack, Springer)

Jordan (Robert) Line (Belson, Brasseur, Pleasants)

Jordan (Thomas) Line (Brasseur, Ellyson, Pleasants, Robinson, Thomas)

Jost (Christoph) Line (Bowers)

Jost (Conrad) Line (Bardt, Barth, Engel, Stammler, Wassermann)

Jung Line (Heimbach)

Kammer Line (Enderli, Loetscher, Witwer)

Keith (Alexander) Line (Ogilvy, Stewart)

Keith (William) Line (Erskine, Gordon, Graham, Troup)

Keller Line (Schatto, Stake)

Kemeys Line (David, Morgan)

Kennedy Line (Gordon, Maxwell, Seton, Stewart)

Kleve Line (Bourgogne, Guelders, Julich)

Knoertzer Line (Weigenthall)

Knolles Line (Chichele)

Knopf Line (Effinger, Irion)

Kunz Line (Berger)

Kyne Line (Chichele, Mansel, Pollidore)

Lamont Line (Campbell, MacDonald)

Lang Line (Schaf, Segmüller)

Large Line (Brown, Dungan)

Latham Line (Dungan)

Latsch Line (vor der Hardt)

Lauder Line (Fallow, Home, Landell)

Lawes Line (Munford, Wallbye)

Lazear Line (Linton, Plummer, Ryan, Webb)

Lennox Line (Campbell, Stuart)

Leslie Line (Halyburton, Hay, Seton, Sinclair)

Lewis (Evan of Cardigan) Line (Davies, Harries)

Lewis (Evan of Chester) Line (Babb, David, Prichard)

Lidiard Line (Hyde)

Lieveling Line (Slecht)

Lindeman Line (Arbogast, Bauer, Springer)

Lindsay (Alexander) Line (Campbell, Dunbar, Ogilvy, Stewart)

Lindsay (James) Line (Herries, Keith)

Linton Line (Boles, Lazear, McFadden, Richards)

Livingston Line (Dundas, Hamilton, Menteith)

Livingstone Line (Moncreiffe, Wemyss)

Llewelyn Line (Llewelyn)

Llywelyn (ap Gwilym) Line (Jenkin, Rhys)

Llywelyn (ap Morgan) Line (Dafydd, Llywelyn)

Llywelyn (ap Phillip) Line (Basset, Howel, Ieuan)

Loetscher Line (Herr, Kammer)

Lovell Line (Douglas, Graham)

Lovingcotte Line (Hyde)

Lubbertsen Line (Bergen, Hendrickse)

Lueck Line (Fischbach)

MacDonald (Allan) Line (Macintosh, Stewart)

MacDonald (Donald) Line (Leslie, Sutherland)

MacDonald (John) Line (Bisset, Lamont, O’Neil, O’Neill)

Mackenzie Line (Fraser, Grant, MacAulay, MacDougall, MacLeod, Macintosh, Stewart)

Mackintosh / Macintosh Line (Campbell, Gordon, Graham, Grant, MacDonald, Mackenzie, McQueen, Ogilvy)

MacLeod Line (Mackenzie, Mar)

Madog Line (Gruffudd)

Maelog Line (Chicheley, Daubeny)

Mainwaring Line (Foulshurst, Venables)

Malmberg Line (Andersdotter, Barth, Swanson)

Mansel Line (Fleming, Griffith, Gwilim, Kyne, Penrice, Turberville)

Marcey Line (Canes, Gill)

Marcross Line (Basset)

Marshe Line (Hurst)

Martin (James) Line (Bowman, McMurtrie, McMyrtre, Roberts, Smith, Trotter)

Martin (Llewellyn) Line (Abraham, Bowen, Davies, Morgan)

Martin (Richard) Line (Tichborne)

Martin (Thomas) Line (Roberts, Tucker)

Martz Line (Burkhart, Nave, Snider)

Massey Line (Barrier, Boles, Modrell)

Maule Line (Abercromby, Fleming, Gray, Guthrie, Halyburton, Lindsay, Mercer, Rollo)

Maxwell (Herbert) Line (Herries, Kennedy, Stewart)

Maxwell (Robert) Line (Boyd, Denniston, Lindsay)

May Line (Collet)

McClain Line (Brownlee, Gullett)

McCrosky / McCoskery Line (Clark, Faris, Stayman)

McFadden Line (Chapman, Heston, Linton)

McIntire Line (Bailey, Brown, Dick, Speece)

McMurtrie Line (Martin)

McMyrtre Line (Martin)

McQueen / Macqueen Line (Brown, Mackintosh)

Melford Line (Clifford, Need)

Melville Line (Boswell, Scott, Stewart)

Mercer Line (Barclay, Drummond, Maule, Stewart, Wardlaw)

Messerschmidt Line (Messerschmitz)

Messerschmitz Line (Becker, Messerschmidt)

Meyrick Line (Fleming, Harpway, Ieuan, Meurig, Richard, William)

Michell Line (Sidney)

Milner Line (Cary)

Minnes Line (Feddans, Van Voorhees)

Modrell Line (Massey)

Moncreiffe line (Campbell, Dundas, Livingstone, Murray)

Montgomerie Line (Boyd, MacDonald, Stuart)

Monypenny Line (Bethune, Wemyss)

Morgan (ap David) Line (Evan)

Morgan (ap David Powell) Line (David, Jenkin)

Morgan (ap Hugyn) Line (Marchudd)

Morgan (ap Jenkin) Line (Basset, Vaughan, Welsh, William)

Morgan (ap John) Line (David, Evan, William)

Morgan (ap Trahaearn) Line (Ieuan)

Mortimer (Edmund) Line (Percy, Plantagenet)

Mosby Line (Binford, Gostlyne, Woodson)

Müller Line (Beringer, Scherb, Schweitzer)

Munford Line (Lawes, Pleasants, Youngs)

Murray Line (Campbell, Colquhoun, Drummond, Graham, Grant, Gray, Keith, Stewart)

Mylin / Meilin / Meili Line (Baer, Bär, Herr, Hochstrasser)

Nash Line (Sloper, Withers)

Naunton Line (Almot, Barney, Brusyard, Doyley, Tymperley)

Nave Line (Martz)

Need Line (Cartlidge, Melford)

Nerbel Line (Barth, Flekkenstein)

Neubecker Line (Bauer, Dick)

Neville Line (Dacre, Percy, Stafford)

Nevyus / Nevius / Neeff Line (Becx, Bleijck, Schenck, Sleght, Van Voorhees)

Newell Line (Fowler)

Nohr Line (Peiffer, Raquet)

Nowell Line (Jefferis, Tatchell

Oberholtzer Line (Steman)

Ogilvy (Alexander of Findlater) Line (Abernethy, Glen, Gordon, Innes, Macintosh, Ramsay, Sinclair)

Ogilvy (David) Line (Glen, Ramsay, Rattray)

Ogilvy (James) Line (Durward, Graham, Kennedy, Lindsay, Sinclair)

Ogilvy (Patrick) Line (Keith, Oliphant)

Oldcastle Line (Pembridge, Whitney)

Oliphant Line (Ogilvy, Stewart, Wardlaw)

Oliver Line (Ackerly, Drake)

op den Graeff Line (Addams, Jansen, Peters, Pletges)

Otterbach Line (Heimbach, Holtzclaw, Stuell)

Owain (ap Gruffudd) Line (Hanmer, Scudamore)

Owain (ap Marchudd) Line (Jeffrey, Llywelyn, Morgan, Rhys)

Owen Line (Rhys)

Packwood Line (Harbour, Hough)

Painter / Bender Line (Boles, Bullinger, Erb)

Parish Line (Foster)

Parker Line (Barber)

Parsons Line (Hellings, Tarr)

Payne Line (Assiter, Drury)

Percy Line (Clifford, Mortimer, Neville)

Perkins Line (Hussey)

Peverell Line (Courtenay, Hungerford)

Pfister Line (Irion)

Phillips Line (Arrants)

Plantagenet Line (Castile, Holand)

Pleasants Line (Cary, Evered, Jordan, Larcombe, Marshall, Munford, Putrasse)

Pletges Line (Gobels, op den Graeff)

Plummer Line (Lazear, Smith, Wilson, Yate)

Polhemius Line (Sebring, Van der Werven)

Powell Line (Richard, Woolaston)

Price (John) Line (David, Evan, Jevan)

Price (Thomas) Line (Arrants, Lee)

Prichard Line (Basset, Evan, Fleming, Gamage, Howel, Lewis, Llewelyn, Meyrick)

Prickett Line (Springer)

Pride Line (Hallcott, Roberts)

Princehouse / Printzhausen Line (Speece)

Probst Line (Fischer, Fosselman, Hoffman)

Rapelje Line (Baudoin, Bergen, Trico)

Raquet Line (Didenhoff, Greiner, Nohr)

Rattray Line (Abercrombie, Kennedy, Ogilvy, Stewart)

Readshaw Line (Barber, Graver)

Ree Line (Hollingsworth)

Reimbach Line (Bauer)

Rhys (ap Hywel) Line (Hywel, Richard)

Rhys (ap Robert) Line (Hywel, Llywelyn)

Richard Line (Einon)

Ries Line (Crafft, Wassermann)

Rimpler Line (Hieronymus, Hoffman)

Ripley Line (Ballow, Thomas)

Roberts (John) Line (Jefferis, Withers)

Roberts (Morris) Line (Burnett, Martin, Pride, Step)

Roberts (Thomas) Line (Martin)

Robinson (John) Line (Fearon, Jordan)

Robinson (Melvin) Line (Bowman, Gullett, Hickey)

Robinson (Rossiter) Line (Conklin, Cunningham, Rossiter, Speece, Withers)

Rodburgh Line (Gamage)

Rollo / Rollock Line (Gray, Maule)

Ros Line (Clifford, Stafford)

Rose Line (Calder, Cheyne, Macintosh, Sutherland)

Rossiter Line (Addams, Robinson)

Roth Line (Groh)

Rudolph Line (Heilman, Ströhlin)

Rung Line (Barth, Greiner, Heisdorfer)

Russell (Richard) Line (Brown, Hickey)

Russell (Solomon) Line (Bowers, Brown, Ermentraudt)

Russell (Thomas) Line (Ludlow, Whitney)

Ruthven Line (Buttergask, Cranstoun, Drummond, Halyburton, Levington)

Rythe Line (Cowdray, Tichborne)

Saint John (Edward) Line (Aton, Bromflete)

Saint John (John) Line (Beauchamp, Bradshagh, Clifford, Pavley)

Saltzgeber Line (Friedli, Hoffman, Schweitzer)

Samm Line (Clark, Hanscombe, Surtees, Tidmarsh)

Savage Line (Brereton, Daniers, Stanley, Swynnerton, Trafford)

Schaeffer Line (Dorn)

Schaff Line (Christmann, Greiner, Lang)

Schäffer Line (Fosselmann, Vigelius)

Schantzenbach Line (Alterrriedt, Grim, Weber)

Schatto Line (Keller)

Schenck Line (Nevius, Van Kouwenhoven)

Scherb Line (Müller)

Schneider Line (Heimbach)

Scholt Line (Busch)

Schweitzer Line (Müller, Saltzgeber, Wolfer)

Scott Line (Melville)

Scrymgeour Line (Campbell, Carnegie, Cunninghame, Halyburton, Lyon, Maxwell, Ogilvy, Oliphant)

Scudamore Line (Ewias, Owain, Weston)

Sebring / Seuberinge Line (Bodine, Polhemius)

Segmüller / Seegmueller Line (Becker, Christ, Lang)

Sel Line (auf dem Berge, Busch)

Seton Line (Fleming, Sinclair, Stuart)

Shaw Line (Edmonstone)

Sheppard Line (Jolliffe, Watts)

Shircliffe / Shircliff / Shercliffe / Sheircliffe Line (Ford, Hoult, Spinke, Thompson, Wheeler)

Sibbald Line (Douglas)

Sidney Line (Gainsford, Michell)

Sinclair (Henry) Line (Douglas, Halyburton, Hepburn, Leslie, Ogilvy)

Sinclair (John) Line (Ogilvy)

Sinclair (William of Hermantoun) Line (Seton)

Sinnott Line (Colfer, Hickey, Nevill)

Slack / Sleght / Slecht Line (Barentsdr, Bergen, Bos, Downing, Ellis, Jolliffe, Lieveling, Nevyus)

Sloper (Thomas) Line (Bailly, Withers)

Sloper (William) Line (Nash)

Slye Line (Gerard, Wheeler)

Smith (Jeremiah) Line (Arrants, Dungan, Foster)

Smith (John) Line (Chandler, Webb)

Smith (Richard) Line (Dameron)

Smith (William) Line (Withers)

Snowe Line (Gerard)

Snyder / Snider / Schneider Line (Bowers, Harbour, Martz, Wagner)

Speece / Spies Line (Bowers, Henry, McIntire, Princehouse, Robinson, Stayman)

Springer (Christian) Line (Lindeman, Melchoir)

Springer (Dennis) Line (Hudson, Jolliffe, Prickett)

Stafford Line (Beauchamp, Neville)

Stainburne Line (Barber, Wyly)

Stake / Steeg / Steg Line (Barber, Degen, Haeppert, Keller, Stayman)

Stammler Line (Dietz, Jost)

Stanley (Thomas) Line (Goushill, Harrington, Lathom, Savage)

Stanley (William) Line (Arderne, Bromley, Gerard, Houghton, Savage)

Stayman / Steman Line (Baer, McCrosky, Oberholtzer, Speece, Stake)

Steiger Line (Kuntze)

Step Line (Roberts)

Stephens Line (Yate)

Stevenson Line (Brown)

Stewart (David) Line (Graham, Lindsay)

Stewart (James) Line (Rattray)

Stewart (John of Atholl) Line (Beaufort, Campbell, Grant, MacDougal, Rattray, Sinclair)

Stewart (John of Blackhall) Line (Campbell)

Stewart (John of Lorn) Line (Campbell, MacDougall, Stewart)

Stewart (King James) Line (Beaufort, Drummond, Guelders, Hamilton)

Stewart (Robert of Albany) Line (Graham, Stewart)

Stewart (Robert of Durisdeer) Line (MacDougall, Mercer)

Stewart (Walter) Line (Campbell, Edmonstone, Graham, Lennox)

St. Lo Line (Clyvedon, Botreaux)

Strangeways Line (Gerard, Orells)

Ströhlin Line (Rudolph)

Stourton Line (Beauchamp)

Stuart Line (Campbell, Lennox, Montgomerie, Seton)

Stuell Line (Beer, Otterbach)

Surtees Line (Martin, Samm, Whittamore)

Sutherland (Alexander) Line (Calder, MacDonald)

Sutherland (William) Line (Cheyne, Chisholm, Mureff / Murray, Rose)

Swanson Line (Andreasdotter, Malmberg)

Swift Line (Wing)

Swynnerton Line (Beke, Savage)

Tarbell Line (Conklin)

Tarrant Line (Sloper, Withers)

Taylor (John) Line (Brown)

Taylor (Robert) Line (Wood)

Taylor (Thomas) Line (Cary)

Teichmann Line (Conradi)

Thomas (ap Evan) Line (Cradoc, Fleming, Thomas, William)

Thomas (ap Gronwy) Line (Chicheley, Hywel, Ieuan)

Thomas (ap Gruffudd) Line (Dafydd, Havard, Roger)

Thomas (ap Gwilim) Line (Evan)

Thomas (ap Gwilim David) Line (Lleisan)

Thomas (ap Hywel) Line (Gwilym, Ieuan, Havard, Weston)

Thomas (ap Llywelyn) Line (Ieuan, Llywelyn)

Thomas (ap Morgan) Line (Basset, Halyn, Jevan, John, Kemeys)

Thomas (Charles) Line (Dameron, Harbour, Jordan, Ripley)

Thompson Line (Sheircliffe)

Tichborne Line (Martin, Rythe, Wandesford, White, Yate)

Tidmarsh Line (Barber, Hiorn, Samm)

Thurlow Line (Woolcott)

Tilley Line (Howland, Hurst)

Tomey Line (Auliffe, Cunningham)

Touchet / Tuchet Line (Holland, Mortimer, Whitney)

Townsend Line (Coles, Dickinson)

Trafford Line (Ashton, Gerard, Savage, Venables)

Trice Line (Eley, Gullett)

Trico Line (Rapelje, Sauvagie)

Trotter Line (Gibbs, Martin)

Turberville Line (Mansel)

Valoniis Line (Wardlaw)

Van Fisphe Line (vor der Hardt)

Van Kouwenhoven Line (Cool, Jacobsdochter, Schenck)

Van Voorhees Line (Minnes, Nevyus, Seuberinge)

Vaughan (Hopkin) Line (Dennis)

Vaughan (Roger) Line (Devereux, Gam, Jenkin)

Vaughan (Thomas) Line (Vaughan)

Vaughan (William) Line (Evan, Evans, Gam, Havard, Vaughan, Whitney)

Veatch Line (Ellis, Gakerlin)

Venables (Hugh) Line (Cotton, Mainwaring)

Venables (William) Line (Massy, Trafford)

Vernon Line (Foulshurst, Hulse)

Vigelius Line (Schäffer)

Von Arkel Line (Egmond, Jülich)

Vor der Hardt (Hen) Line (Sel, van Fisphe, vor der Hardt)

Vor der Hardt (Henchen) Line (vor der Hardt)

Wagner Line (Bidel, Goeller, Groh)

Walcott / Wolcott / Woolcott Line (Brownlee, Dawe, Emerson, Phippen, Thurlow)

Wandesford Line (Colville, Musters, Tichborne)

Wardlaw Line (Lauder, Mercer, Oliphant, Valoniis)

Warren Line (Youngs)

Wassermann Line (Jost, Ries)

Watts Line (Blaugdone, Sheppard)

Weaver Line (Dungan, Holbrook)

Weber Line (Schantzenbach, Weigenthall)

Weigenthall Line (Knoertzer, Weber)

Wells Line (Yate)

Welsh Line (Philip)

Wemyss Line (Erskine, Livingstone)

Weston Line (Hywel, Scudamore)

Wheeler Line (Shircliffe, Slye)

White Line (Gainsford, Hungerford, Tichborne)

Whitney Line (Cromwell, Oldcastle, Russell, Touchet, Vaughan)

Whittamore Line (Messenger, Surtees)

William (ap John) Line (Howel)

William (ap Rhys) Line (Hopkin, Jevan, Owen)

William (ap Thomas) Line (Richard)

Wilson (Edward) Line (Plummer)

Wilson (Robert?) Line (Brownlee)

Wing Line (Bachiler, Dungan, Swift)

Withers Line (Collet, Davis, Holllingsworth, Nash, Roberts, Robinson, Sloper, Smith, Tarrant, Wollaston)

Witmer Line (Baer, Eby, Engle)

Wolfer Line (Durnbläser, Schweitzer)

Wood Line (Hussey, Taylor)

Woodson Line (Ferris, Mosby)

Woolaston Line (Powell, Withers)

Wright Line (Barber, Cartlidge)

Yate Line (Ashenden, Hyde, Plummer, Stephens, Tichborne, Wells)

Yerian / Jurian / Irion Line (Bollin, Bowers, Conradi, Dorn, Fosselman, Haug, Knopf, Pfister)

Youngs (Joseph) Line (Conklin, Warren)

Youngs (William) Line (Munford, Muns)

JUST RELEASED! The Omnibus Ancestry, 3rd Edition

Or if you prefer formal titles, The Omnibus Ancestry: 619 Documented American and European Lines.  This newly revised edition extends many ancestral lines, drops a small handful, and adds over 30 new ones since the 2nd edition. As indicated by the title, a total of 619 are now covered, with many carried back to about the year 1350. This is the most up-to-date and definitive ancestry of the Boles-Bowers and Barth-Hickey families across their many limbs and branches.

THE OMNIBUS ANCESTRY.3rd.Lulu.cover.c

The book updates numerous previous publications in handy, condensed, corrected, and referenced form.  Besides the previous editions of The Omnibus Ancestry, the 10 books it updates include:

  • Barth-Hickey Ancestry
  • Bowers-Russell Ancestry
  • Ellis Ancestors: Some Immigrants, Colonists, and Pioneers
  • Foster Ancestors: Some Europeans, Immigrants, Colonists, and Pioneers
  • Snyder-Harbour Ancestry
  • Some Earlier Americans: Boles-Linton Ancestors
  • Speece-Robinson Ancestry
  • Stayman-McCrosky Ancestry
  • The Bower-Bowers Descendants of Johann Jacob Bauer
  • Withers-Davis Ancestry

A full list of the ancestral lines appears at the Bolesbooks web site.

Notes are used to elaborate on the text, to explain the logic behind conclusions, to indicate where further generations may be found before 1350, to provide references, and to make suggestions for further research.  However, the notes are listed separately and do not intrude should you prefer a smooth reading of the text.

There’s never been a better time to check out The Omnibus Ancestry!  To access a preview on the Lulu publication page, please click here.

NEW BOOK! Origins and Descendants of James Bole

I am pleased to announce the publication of my new book, The Origins and Descendants of James Bole of Westmoreland and Armstrong Counties, Pennsylvania.  At this Lulu link, under “More Detail”, you can obtain a preview before deciding whether to buy.

Many years in the making, and coming in at 411 pages, the book covers the revised ancestry and descendants of James Bole (1752-1836), who married Mary Painter and settled in Westmoreland and Armstrong counties, Pennsylvania. The couple have left family spread throughout the nation. The book contains full references and an every-name index. Maps and photos are included. The volume supersedes the obsolete 1986 publication by providing the true origins of the family, adding many descendants, and correcting a number of errors.  The Scottish and Irish background of the family is treated at length.

There is a full index in the Lulu preview, or you can consult it using the link provided at my Bolesbooks publication website.  I’m happy to introduce so many long-lost Kelburn Boyle descendants!

28. The Kelburn Thistle and the Boyle Family

On this day, October 2nd, 753 years ago – in 1263 – a small Scottish force met an equally small invading Norwegian force on a beach near Largs, Ayshire. Although the Norwegians were able to hold the field after fierce back-and-forth fighting, they were subsequently forced to gather their dead and retreat to their ships. It was the beginning of the end of Norwegian overlordship of the western seaboard of Scotland. Three years later, by the Treaty of Perth, King Magnus VI Haakonsson of Norway ceded the Hebrides and the Isle of Man to King Alexander III of Scotland.

By military standards the action had been a small one, tactically inconclusive even though it ultimately proved strategically significant. In a sense the invasion had even been accidental, for while the Norwegians had amassed a vast armada of ships, it had been a storm that prematurely drove some of the boats onto the beach, triggering the Scottish reaction. Similarly, it was weather that forced the armada to retreat to Norway.

A Fateful Thistle

Beyond the bare historical account there is a curious, romantic story about the Battle of Largs that holds great cultural significance for Scotland. According to tradition, the Norwegian presence on the beach at Largs was unsuspected until one of the barefoot Norsemen stepped on a thistle, crying out in pain. The Scottish troops were alerted, and the battle was on. As a result the thistle has become a symbol of Scotland itself.

Is the thistle story true? There appears to be no primary source for it. But as early as 1470, King James III used the thistle as a national symbol on coinage. In 1540, King James V created the Order of the Thistle, an honorary title for Scottish knights. The thistle today is regarded as the oldest of the national flowers, and it decorates many a coffee mug and T-shirt in tourist shops in Edinburgh.

Kelburn in the Battle of Largs

The thistle tradition holds a special place in my heart, because tradition also places the Boyle family of Kelburn Castle at the Battle of Largs, aiding King Alexander [1]. Possibly commemorating that, in the 19th century, Kelburn Castle had a turret that terminated in what was said to show “the finishing personality and nationality of Scottish architecture — the crest of the Laird surmounted by the thistle.” [2]

Was the fateful thistle a Boyle one? Largs is only two miles from Kelburn Castle. Given that the site of battle is not entirely certain, and that lordly domains extended over large distances, it is not out of the realm of possibility. However, most likely not. In the middle and late 13th century, the lordship of Largs was held by the Baliol family [3], and that likely encompassed most if not all of the possible battle sites.

Thistles at Kelburn

Nevertheless there are still thistles at Kelburn. Earlier this year my wife and I toured the castle gardens. We found among the proliferation of flowers in the Plaisance, the brilliant rose of the thistle (photo). Whether the traditions are true or not, my ancestral estate of Kelburn recognizes its place within the colorful, historical Scottish landscape.

13-thistles-in-the-plaisance


Postscript: Developments in the Boyle of Kelburn Ancestry

This is only one of several blog entries I have written on the Boyles of Kelburn. Others include “8. The Kelburn Castle Origin of the Boles Family: A DNA Success Story”, and “24. Tartan Day and Our Scottish Origins”.

As outlined in the first of those blog entries, there is Y-DNA evidence that my ancestor James Bole (1752-1836), of Westmoreland and Armstrong counties, Pennsylvania, was descended from the Kelburn Boyle family. In a book I expect to release in January 2017, I include a lengthy “Origins” chapter that outlines the most likely line of descent of James from the Kelburn family – and beyond.

The story runs through known Boyle settlers of the Plantation of Ulster under King James I of England (VI of Scotland), back to Boyles of the west coast isles, before coalescing with the ancestry of the Boyle Earls of Glasgow around the year 1495. The book is titled, “The Origins and Descendants of James Bole of Westmoreland and Armstrong Counties, Pennsylvania.”

Meanwhile, if you are a Boyle or Boles, please consider Y-DNA testing! Any male bearing the Bole/Boles/Bowles/Boyle name, of these or other spellings, who is thought to have Irish origins and a Protestant background but whose background is otherwise unknown, has a legitimate shot of descending from the Kelburn family.

You can obtain further information from the project webpage at http://www.ancestors-genealogy.com/bowles/index.html. Clicking on the “visit this site” link provided there will show the range of tests available. It is strongly recommended that 25 or more genetic markers be tested, as the 12-marker test is not very diagnostic. Besides providing you with evidence bearing on your own origins, your test results will be of considerable benefit to the Bowles DNA Project — even if you know little about your exact ancestry.


Notes:

[1] Tales From Scottish Lairds (1985). Norwich: Jarrold Colour Publications.

[2] Millar, A.H. (1885). Historical and Descriptive Accounts of the Castles and Mansions, of Ayrshire. Edinburgh: William Patterson.

[3] Chalmers, G. (1890). Caledonia: Or, A Historical and Topographical Account of North Britain. Paisley: Alexander Gardner, v. 6.


Picture attribution:

Personal photo.