30. Three Valentines: The Snyder / Snider Family of Germany, Rockingham County, Virginia, and Champaign County, Ohio

Some years ago while researching the Snyder / Snider family of Champaign county, Ohio — my mother’s ancestors — I ran across an unusual signature. It was on my ancestor’s court declaration concerning his service in the War of 1812. Following his brief testimony, he signed:


That stylized, unnecessary extension of the V in Valentine — sorry, I have to say it — stole my heart. It particularly did so because its author was 77 years old at the time. My ancestor was apparently a lifelong romantic!

By the 1870s when he made his declaration, the association of the heart glyph with Valentines was already well established. Accompanying is a picture of a Valentine card from that very decade. While the expression of sentiment seems a little tone deaf by modern standards, the association between love and the heart is clear.


The man with the heart-melting signature was John Valentine Snider, Jr. He was born in 1793 in Rockingham county, Virginia, the son of immigrant John Valentine Snider, Sr. — our second of three Valentines. Exactly when across the generations the heart glyph became associated with the given name will probably never be known. What has recently been discovered, however, is a third Valentine, far back in the family in Germany.

His discovery is actually the important part of the tale in this edition of The Genealogist’s Craft. For a number of decades, my father and I were stymied in identifying the exact German origin of Valentine, Sr. But then in 1992 an extraordinary revelation came by way of the mailbox. A new correspondent residing in Ohio sent along photocopies of two handwritten pages of birth information.  He wrote that they had been referred to in a 1904 letter as having been copied from “a family Bible since lost.”

The document contained the family record of the father of Valentine, Sr., as well as that of Valentine himself. It named the children of both generations and gave their birthdates. For the most part the transcription appeared to be literal, though judging from instances of fractured English grammar it had likely been translated from German by someone not fluent in that language.

An unusual feature of the entries is that they gave zodiac signs for each of the children, but in a manner that was unfamiliar. For example, the entries for two of the children of Valentine, Sr., born in the two very different months of January and October, both gave “Steer” as their sign. It now seems clear that in accordance with a practice previously noticed in Pennsylvania German custom [1], the zodiac of the birth records was lunar based, with signs changing roughly daily instead of monthly. Thus children with birth dates in separated months could indeed share the same sign.

A final notable feature of the document was that it stated that the “book” (i.e., Bible) had been purchased in Rissmuhl, Germany, in 1730. That was likely Rißmühl, a locality about a half mile NW of Stallwang, itself about 40 km east of Regensburg, Bavaria. Was this perhaps the geographic origin of the family? At the time the question could not be answered.

When I published the Snyder-Harbour Ancestry in 2005, I saw no reason not to give credence to this record, and accordingly provided an account of the father and siblings of Valentine, Sr., as well as what biographical information was available. I also photographically reproduced the two-page document in the book itself, because as I wrote in the text, the record was in danger of being lost to posterity. Annoyingly, however, when I searched the on-line databases of the time, corroboration of the birth records in the handwritten document continued to elude me.

In the decade since the book’s publication, however, databases have become more and more complete as extracts have continued to be made. It was with pleasure, then, that just before I first published the Omnibus Ancestry, I rechecked and finally found the children’s birth records, neatly laid out in extracts from German church records. The third Valentine was revealed, the grandfather of John Valentine Snider, Sr.

And Rißmühl? Most good genealogical stories leave a loose end or two for further investigation. That is certainly true in this case, for Rißmühl is almost 300 miles from the now-known German home of the Sniders. What on earth was one of my ancestors doing so far from home in 1730? Research will continue — my Valentine to the lives of our ancestors.

For more on the Snyder/Snider family, please see The Omnibus Ancestry, available for preview and download through Lulu.com at this link.  The Snyder-Harbour Ancestry is also still available there.


[1] Wertkin, G.C. (2004). Encyclopedia of American Folk Art. NY: Routledge.

Picture attributions: Public domain


25. The True Parentage of Ralph Lewis, of Darby Township, Chester (now Delaware) County, Pennsylvania

The material below is treated at greater length, with full references, in the Omnibus Ancestry (available for download at Lulu).

In 1683 Ralph Lewis emigrated from Wales to Pennsylvania. He took with him a Certificate of Removal from the Friends’ (Quaker) Men’s Meeting for Cardiff and Treverig, co. Glamorgan, stating that he was leaving with John ap Bevan (John Bevan). Shortly before, while in Wales, Ralph had purchased Pennsylvania land from John, at which time he was described as a resident of “Illan”; i.e., Eglwysilan parish. The removal certificate was signed by a man named Thomas Prichard, among others [1,2].

Footpath and Stream Near Eglwysilan

By 1691 Ralph had settled in Darby (now Upper Darby) township, then in Chester county but now part of Delaware county, Pennsylvania. He appeared in the records of the Quaker meeting in Haverford township, (now) Delaware county, and owned land there and in the townships of Upper Darby and Lower Merion (now in Montgomery county). His will was made in 1712 when he was still a resident of (Upper) Darby, and he died that same year. Ralph left many descendants through his large family of 9 children, 8 of whom lived to married adulthood [1,2].

The Contribution of Thomas Allen Glenn

The identity of Ralph Lewis’ parents has long tantalized genealogists, not least because of his known place of origin and his association with John Bevan, a Pennsylvania Quaker of known royal descent [3]. In the late 19th century, the genealogist Thomas Allen Glenn took up this problem, initially concluding that Ralph’s father was another Ralph Lewis, whose 1683 will indicated he was of Llanishen, co. Glamorgan [4]. Glenn’s rationale was unexplained, but because the will did not name sons, was probably based on nothing more than the testator’s name and the proximity of Llanishen to Eglwysilan.

More importantly to the possibility of royal descent, however, Glenn concluded that the immigrant Ralph’s mother was a Prichard:

She must have been Ann Prichard, as Thomas Prichard is called Uncle, by William [Lewis] in letter to Ralph, and for a number of minor reasons all of which make me consider this as proved and beyond question. [4]

It is through a Prichard connection that John Bevan has a traceable royal descent. He was the son of Evan John, of Treverig, co. Glamorgan, and his wife Jane Prichard, the sister of Ann and Thomas Prichard. The Prichards were the children of Richard ab Evan, of Collenna, co. Glamorgan, and his wife Catharine Bassett [1,2,4]. Then, by tracing a number of additional generations, they are found to be descendants of Edward III, King of England [1,2,3].

In subsequent years Glenn changed his mind about the father of Ralph Lewis. In 1913, as part of a much larger work, he published a brief account of the family in which he stated that there was “evidence amounting almost to a certainty” that Ralph Lewis of Pennsylvania was the son of one David Lewis, of Eglwysilan [5]. To my knowledge, however, Glenn never reported the nature of that evidence.

The Publication of Withers-Davis Ancestry

Leading up to the publication of the Withers-Davis Ancestry in 1998, which included a treatment of the Lewis family, I was intensely concerned with acquiring whatever evidence was to be had on the subject of Ralph Lewis’ ancestry. For a time I maintained a round-robin mail discussion among Lewis researchers that unearthed a number of publications and manuscripts.

In retrospect, the most important document found in this discovery process was the letter alluded to by Glenn. It was found transcribed in three different sources, two in unpublished form (one manuscript and one typescript) and one in published typeset form. The letter was written in 1684 “from Ilan” by William Lewis to his “Dear Brother” Ralph Lewis. It mentioned “thy t[w]o sisters” and that “Thy Brother David doth Remember himselfe to thee” [6].

The critical passage that Glenn had noticed was transcribed most clearly by the highly-regarded local historian and genealogist Gilbert Cope, working from a photograph of the original, and had been published in 1887 [6]:

Remember me to my Loveing frind John ab Evan, for his Chilldren were Sike and now they are well. youre unkel thomas prichard were ded and mary william. [6,8]

Based on this letter and a number of other records, including (a) a substantial list of associations of Ralph Lewis with John Bevan, and (b) evidence that Thomas Prichard had married an heiress, I concluded that Ralph was a blood nephew of Thomas, and accordingly that Glenn was right in concluding that his mother was Thomas’ sister [2]. Furthermore, because previous pedigrees of the Prichard family named only one sister whose marriage was not given:

It is likely that her given name was Anne, although this seems somewhat less certain in that it is unclear whether the known list of siblings … is exhaustive in nature. [2]

The question of Ralph’s father, however, seemed even less certain given that Glenn had not named his sources or even stated the basis of his opinion that his father was named David. After equivocating on how best to represent this situation, I named his father as David, citing Glenn as the source, but noted that:

… evidence that the father was David Lewis is weaker than evidence that the mother was a sister of Thomas Prichard. [2]

The volume then traced the extensive noble and royal ancestry of the Prichard family.

Residual Doubt

I was reasonably certain that a sister of Thomas Prichard was the mother of Ralph Lewis, but a small residual doubt remained in my mind following publication. It was triggered by the ordering of the statements in the critical paragraph of the William Lewis letter. Specifically, “Remember me to my Loveing frind John ab Evan” preceded “youre unkel thomas prichard were ded”. There seemed to me a small possibility that when William used the term “youre unkel”, he was addressing himself to John ab Evan (John Bevan). Bevan, of course, was indeed the nephew of Thomas Prichard, his mother Jane having been Thomas’ sister.

To be sure, taking this alternate interpretation would involve accepting some syntactic gymnastics within the paragraph. Between the statements “Remember me to my Loveing frind John ab Evan” and “youre unkel thomas prichard were ded” was inserted the wording “his Chilldren were Sike and now they are well”, so if a change occurred in mid-paragraph in who was being addressed, the transition between “his Children” and “youre unkel” was jarring. Although the alternate interpretation was judged unlikely, it nevertheless remained within the realm of possibility.

The True Father of Ralph Lewis

While preparing to publish the Omnibus Ancestry, I revisited the issue of Ralph Lewis’ parentage, concentrating my efforts on wills. Initial searches using the Lewis surname were fruitless, replicating Glenn’s unsuccessful search.

But then I hit on the possibility that Lewis may not have been a true surname as Glenn had assumed, but rather a patronymic, a name based on the name of his father. In 17th-century Wales, a process was underway in which patronymics were being converted to permanent surnames. Thus the Prichards derived their permanent surname from “ap Richard” (i.e., “son of Richard”, as borne by the children of Richard ab Evan). But the process had just begun. In some families it would not be completed until the 19th century [7]. I reasoned, therefore, that Ralph Lewis might have been the son of a man with Lewis as given name rather than surname.

So it was that I found the true father of Ralph Lewis. In his will, Lewis William named, among other sons, Raulph Lewis, David Lewis, and William Lewis — all known from the 1684 letter. Two daughters Gwenllian Lewis and Elizabeth Lewis were also named — the 1684 letter, of course, mentioning to Ralph “thy t[w]o sisters”. The final proof of identity was the naming by Lewis of “Mary William my wife”. As William Lewis had indicated in his 1684 letter, “youre unkel thomas prichard were ded and mary william” [1]. Without a doubt, Lewis William was the father of Ralph Lewis of Darby township.

The True Mother of Ralph Lewis

How William Lewis chose to convey news of the death of Mary William is of central importance to this story. He didn’t lead off his letter by saying “our dear mother is dead”. Indeed, Mary’s death was almost an afterthought, inserted as a postscript at the end of a letter that began by describing the good health of Ralph Lewis’ brothers and sisters and their families. Even John Bevan’s children and uncle Thomas Prichard’s death received priority over poor Mary William.

Because no son would announce the death of his mother so offhandedly, there can be very little question that Mary was the stepmother, not mother, of both William and Ralph. As their stepmother, it could well be the case that neither brother felt a strong emotional attachment to her, particularly if she had married their father relatively late in life and he had long been deceased when the letter was written.

But Mary William’s mention at the end of the critical paragraph has another, rather profound implication. Because she had a relationship by marriage to Ralph Lewis, but none at all to John Bevan, her naming indicates that the entirety of the paragraph was addressed to Ralph. If syntactic gymnastics are required to assume a shift of address from Ralph to John Bevan, as suggested above, then the shift back to Ralph within a single sentence (“youre unkel thomas prichard were ded and mary william”) is simply impossible. Thus by William Lewis’ own testimony, Thomas Prichard had to have been Ralph Lewis’ uncle. Glenn was right in this.

But what was the given name of Ralph’s Prichard mother? As mentioned, Glenn and I had both assumed that her name was Anne, because she was the only Prichard sister in existing pedigrees whose marriage was not given.

Here, once again, Welsh wills proved to have something to say. The father of the family, Richard ab Evan, made his will naming among other relatives his daughters Anne, Katherin, Marie, and Flourance Prichard [1]. Because Anne was still alive in 1671/2, while Lewis William died previously, she obviously could not have been Lewis’ first wife. But the letter carries a further implication, because the previously-mentioned pedigrees naming the children of Richard ab Evan did not include daughters named Katherin or Flourance [1,2]. Neither of those could have been Lewis’ first wife for the same reason that Anne could not have been. But their existence raises the possibility that Richard ab Evan had one or more daughters, deceased and not named in the will, who also did not appear in the pedigrees.

That is how I prefer to leave it, with the mother of Ralph Lewis a Prichard of unknown given name, but certainly one of the daughters of Richard ab Evan and his wife Catharine Basset. Assuming that she was a daughter not yet identified, Ralph Lewis and John Bevan were first cousins.

Nevertheless, there is another intriguing possibility worth noting. As mentioned, John Bevan was the son of Evan John and his wife Jane Prichard. The dates of death of both parents are unknown. It is possible, therefore, that Jane was widowed by the death of Evan John, and married as her second husband Lewis William. In other words, Ralph Lewis may have been John Bevan’s half brother through a shared mother. That would certainly account for the known close associations between Ralph and John [2].

This speculative raw material, unfortunately, must be left to future workings of The Genealogist’s Craft. Until then descendants of Ralph Lewis may claim descent from King Edward III through his unknown Prichard mother.  That descent, and many others of Ralph Lewis, are given in the Omnibus Ancestry (available for download at Lulu).


[1] Boles, D.B. (2016). The Omnibus Ancestry: 589 Documented American and European Lines, 2nd ed. Available for download through Lulu.

[2] Boles, D.B., & Boles, H.W. (1998). Withers-Davis Ancestry. Decorah, Iowa: The Anundsen Publishing Co. Available for order from Bolesbooks.

[3] Richardson, D. (2011). Plantagenet Ancestry. Salt Lake City, Utah: private print.

[4] Glenn, T.A. (1899). Lewis. Typescript, Genealogical Society of Pennsylvania.

[5] Glenn, T.A. (1913). Welsh Founders of Pennsylvania. Oxford: Fox, Jones and Co.

[6] Cope, G. (1887). Genealogy of the Sharpless Family. Philadelphia: Dando Printing and Publishing Co.

[7] Rowlands, S. (1994). The surnames of Wales. In J. Rowlands (Ed.), Welsh Family History: A Guide to Research. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., pp. 57-72.

[8] The original letter, Cope indicated, had been in the possession of a Dr. George Smith, of Upper Darby, whose widow was a descendant of Ralph Lewis. Its present whereabouts is unknown, assuming it is extant at all.

Picture attribution:

Image Copyright Gareth James. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic Licence. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, Cali


24. Tartan Day and Our Scottish Origins

Happy Tartan Day! It’s probably safe to say that most Americans don’t know about this commemoration of Scottish heritage, or that the U.S. Senate in 1998, the House in 2005, and the President in 2008 recognized it. Whether official or not, it has spread to other countries of the Scottish diaspora — notably Canada, Australia (although there it is celebrated on July 1st), and Argentina. It has even gotten back to the home country of Scotland, where regional councils are attempting to promote it as a global celebration [1].

Why April 6th? That was the date in 1320 that the Declaration of Arbroath was signed, declaring Scottish independence from England. I have written about the declaration previously on my Bolesbooks Facebook page. Considered by many a foreshadowing of our own Declaration of Independence, it denied the divine right of kings and left to the nation the choice of its sovereign.

Some Scottish Origins

In the case of my family tree it was understood from an early date, certainly the early 1960s if not previously, that we had discernible Scottish origins among its many roots. However, this came from an indirect assessment of surnames more than from direct evidence. Ancestral “Mc” surnames such as McCrosky, McFadden, and McIntire were recognized as most probably either Scottish or Scotch-Irish, even though repeated searches failed to turn up evidence of specific places of origin. The later additions of my wife’s ancestral families of McClain and McMurtrie fell into the same vaguely Scottish category.

Today we have hints of whispers of the origins of a couple of these families: Possibly co. Antrim, Ireland, for the McCrosky (McCoskery) family, and co. Antrim, Ireland, for the McMurtries, who in both cases were therefore most likely Scotch-Irish [2]. But actual hard evidence of specific geographic locations has been slow in coming. Below I’d like to highlight three ancestral lines for which hard evidence exists, namely the Ellyson, Boles, and McQueen families.

The Ellyson Family

I descend from Virginia’s Ellyson family through my mother. Her ancestor Deborah Harbour’s mother was a Thomas, her mother was a Jordan, and her mother was Susanna Ellyson, daughter of Joseph Ellyson, a Quaker of New Kent county, Virginia. From there the line is traceable to two Robert Ellysons, father and son, who lived in Gloucester and James City counties. The two are almost universally confused both because they shared their given name, and because they died nearly simultaneously (1668/9 in the case of the son, and about 1669 in the case of the father) [2,3].

Their distinctness, however, is attested by an extraordinary family Bible entry written in the late 1700s, reciting the ancestry of one Robert Allison (Ellison) three generations back to the younger Robert Ellyson, then to his father Robert, and finally to the immigrant ancestor John Allison. The entry concluded with a geographic payoff: John was stated to have come from Windyedge, co. Lanark, Scotland, sometime before 1625 [3].

This account has been sufficiently corroborated through other evidence that it can be taken as largely accurate. One thread of evidence is that an Alison family is historically known at Windyedge, a farm located in Avondale parish in the vicinity of Strathaven. One member was James Alison, born 1621, who resided at Windyedge. His sons John, Michael, and Archibald all took up the cause of the Covenanters, a nationalist Presbyterian movement that dominated Scottish politics between 1638 and 1651, but which was doomed to defeat by the forces of Oliver Cromwell and later King Charles II [3,4]. John was taken prisoner at the Battle of Bothwell Bridge in 1679, and banished to Virginia. Michael fled to Ireland after the military defeat at Airsmoss in 1680, and was at the siege of Londonderry in 1688/9. Archibald, however, was the most unfortunate. He was executed at Edinburgh in 1680, his dying statement appearing in the book A Cloud of Witnesses [3].

The Virginia Ellyson family, incidentally, provides a major royal descent from King Edward I of England, as well as from a raft of noble families. This thread came into the family from the marriage of the younger Robert Ellyson with a Gerard wife, about the year 1655 [2,3].

The Boles Family

I have written extensively about the Boles family origin in a previous post, 8. The Kelburn Castle Origin of the Boles Family: A DNA Success Story. The American ancestor was James Bole (1752-1836), who died in Armstrong county, Pennsylvania, and whose son William (my ancestor) added the friendly ending “s” to the name [2].

For many years we thought the Boleses might be English. However, their true origin began to emerge when it was discovered, from the apparent statement of a grandson, that James was born in Ireland. That, and his known Presbyterian religion, pointed clearly to a Scotch-Irish origin. In other words, James was almost certainly the descendant of a Scot who had crossed to Ireland, probably specifically to Ulster [2].

The next realization was the family might ultimately have been from Kelburn, Ayrshire, Scotland. This hypothesis emerged as it began to be appreciated that the spelling of the surname varied in American records, and Bole could sometimes appear as Boyle. A family named Boyle, now Earls of Glasgow, have been seated at Kelburn castle continuously since at least the late 1200s, plenty of time to generate cadet lines, one or more of which may have crossed to Ireland. Furthermore until early in the 20th century, the surname Boyle was pronounced in Ayshire as Bole, potentially explaining how the Bole and Boyle spellings could refer to the same family.

The Kelburn hypothesis recently received a ringing confirmation when it was discovered that a male-line descendant of James Bole has a Y chromosome with similar genetic markers to that from a male-line descendant of John Boyle (1688-1740), the 2nd Earl of Glasgow and a member of the Kelburn family. The relationship certainly was not close; my ancestor may have left the castle, never to return, around 1430. Nevertheless it affords a second specific Scottish location to feel a connection to, one that is all the more meaningful because it connects me to the origin of my surname.

The McQueen (MacQueen) Family

The family most appropriate to recognize this Tartan Day, however, may be the McQueens. Unlike the Ellysons and Boleses, who were Lowlander families having little to do with tartans, the McQueens were Highlanders and presumably did wear the plaid (see graphic).

The MacQueen Tartan

I have written extensively about my ancestor Dugal McQueen (ca 1666?-1746) in two posts, namely 4. Dugal McQueen, Scottish Rebel and Gateway Ancestor to Royalty, and BRIEFLY NOTED: A McQueen 300th Anniversary. It is sufficient to say that he is known to have been of Pollochaig, Moy parish, co. Inverness, Scotland, a location made possible to identify through an English prison record establishing his Moy origin [2]. Today the manor house at Pollochaig is in ruins but can still be visited at its location near Tomatin.

Dugal’s known ancestry is very extensive, being known in his male line for an additional two generations back to 1644, with a family presence at Pollochaig likely back to about 1510, and for many generations back through his mother and numerous intermarried Scottish families [2].

Dugal came involuntarily to Maryland in 1716, exiled and probably in chains, having been captured in the Battle of Preston the previous year [2]. Whatever one’s views of the failed Jacobite rebellions of the 1700s, their participants saw them as nationalist expressions of freedom from English overlordship. That seems appropriate to recognize on Tartan Day.

Final Thoughts

The difficulty of genealogically “jumping the pond” to Scotland should not be underestimated. Looked at together, the three geographic locations I’ve described were all the result of unusual discoveries. They included a remarkable family Bible entry, a converging pair of Y-DNA tests, and an obscure prison record from a failed rebellion. Other families, like the McClains, McCroskys, McFaddens, McIntires, and McMurtries, have so far proved impossible to trace back to Scotland. In most cases this is due to the stretch of years taking family origins beyond available church records, and in some if not most cases due to intervening lost generations spent in Ireland.

Nevertheless unusual records sometimes exist, and they make good material for the genealogist’s craft. Keep weaving your threads together! But on today’s Tartan Day, feel free to celebrate your Scottishness no matter how it is known.


[1] Information retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tartan_Day (2016).

[2] Boles, D.B. (2016). The Omnibus Ancestry: 589 Documented American and European Lines, 2nd edition. Available for download through Lulu.

[3] Boles, D.B. (2005). Snyder-Harbour Ancestry. Available for download through Lulu.

[4] Information retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Covenanter (2016).

Picture attribution: Owner Celtus, “MacQueen tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png”, retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:MacQueen_tartan_(Vestiarium_Scoticum).png. Used under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5 Generic license.


21. The Power of Convergence, Part 2: O Brother, Where Art Thou?

In a previous blog entry, 17. The Power of Convergence, Part 1: Francis Drake, I described the use of the web to find a reference imperfectly cited to me about 45 years previously. Entering three names said to appear in the record, I quickly located the reference using Google Search, and found that it was available in free, downloadable form. That in turn allowed me to dispell the myth that my ancestor Francis Drake, of New Hampshire and New Jersey, was originally of West Meath, Ireland.

Thus the convergent power of the web, something unimagined 45 years ago, provided information that significantly impacted on a genealogical conclusion. Each of the three names entered alone produced thousands of hits — to be specific, about 695,000 for Francis Drake, 63,400 for Thomas Temple, and 231,000 for Richard Saunders — but when entered simultaneously, convergence was found on one unique source that matched information I had been given decades earlier. Using it, I was able to draw a negative conclusion about the origin of my ancestor .

But what about more positive instances? Can convergence be used to support, not just dispel relationships? In my experience the answer is yes — especially if you start with a known “starter” relationship.

“Starter” Relationships

A “starter” relationship is between two people, known to be of the same family, each connected to a number of possibly associated records. Looking for overlap among the possible associations is what allows for convergence. For example if a possible origin (among several) of one person matches a possible origin (among several) of a related person, there is a fair chance that the match indicates their common origin.

Brotherly love

In my experience the starter relationship is usually between brothers. This is probably due to the fact that brothers usually have the same surname, while married sisters, or a married sister and a brother, typically do not. Therefore brothers tend to be known to a greater extent than other sibling pairs.

To illustrate the power of convergence in such situations, I briefly present two case studies involving brothers.

The Slack Brothers

In tracing my Slack ancestors, attention quickly settled on two contemporaries who settled in Mason county, Kentucky, about the same time prior to 1800. One, John Slack, seemed most likely to be our ancestor, but for a time we could not rule out the other, Jacob Slack. I wrote about this problem in my very first blog entry (1. John Slack of Mason County, Kentucky: Poverty and a Glittering Past), and there is no point in rehashing it here. For present purposes it is enough to state that we believed the two men to be brothers. How could this fact be used to determine their origin?

Census records in this case proved to provide the initial point of convergence. By examining the 1790 census nationwide, using the web resource Ancestry.com, it was found that a John Slack and a Jacob Slack both appeared as heads of household in the 1790 census of Harford county, Maryland. With research attention turned to Maryland, I quickly located an 1816 deed by which Jacob Slack of Mason county, Kentucky, sold a share of land in Harford county. There could be no doubt: The intermediate place of origin of the two brothers was Harford county.

But where were they from before that? Web searches turned up the next point of convergence. John and Jacob Sleght, sons of Hendrick Sleght, were baptized respectively in May 1746 and July 1757 in Bucks county, Pennsylvania, dates initially found on the web but later confirmed in printed church records. A number of other circumstances matched as well — among them, evidence from Kentucky and Maryland that John was significantly older than Jacob, and a gravestone in Kentucky giving an age for Jacob that was closely consistent with the baptismal record.

This discovery made it possible not just to identify the father of the brothers, but to add multiple ancestral lines tracing back in some cases many generations. It was a major windfall discovery.

While there were a number of facts possibly associated with John, and a number possibly associated with Jacob, it was the convergence of information across both that allowed the discovery of their origin. To fully appreciate the importance of that, consider what would have happened had I known only of John Slack. I would have found multiple possible places of origin in census and tax records, and would have been at a loss when attempting to identify which pertained. It was the known “starter” relationship of John to Jacob that solved the problem.

The Altrate (Altred) Brothers

My ancestor Christopher Altrate (Altred; Alteriedt) arrived at Philadelphia in 1749, and was in Frederick county, Virginia, by 1760. He resided in Winchester, and there became one of the founders of the town’s Evangelical Lutheran church. In his will, made in 1765, he referred to property that would come to him in Youghstousen, Germany. Christopher had an apparent brother named Michael Altred, who had been fined in 1761 in Frederick county for being absent from a muster, and who stood security for Christopher’s widow when she administered his estate.

The name of the German location proved problematic, because there is no Youghtstousen in Germany. A query directed to a genealogy forum elicited the same response from two native German speakers: In their opinion the location was probably Jagsthausen, in Württemberg.

Convergence in this case came from the ongoing indexing of German birth and christening records by the LDS Church. A record for Christoph Alteried showed a birth date of 16 Apr 1724, as recorded in the Evangelisch church, Ruchsen, Baden. That of his brother Georg Michael Alteriedt occurred on 5 Oct 1725, recorded in the same church. Both were sons of Johann Friederich Alteried by his wife Maria Agnes. Then came the best part, the discovery that Jagsthausen is only 6.5 road miles from Ruchsen [1]. The deal was sealed.

Again, the case illustrates the use of web-based information to provide convergence between brothers in a known starter relationship, this time using the online FamilySearch facility of the LDS Church (familysearch.org). Discovering the parents made it possible to trace a number of further generations in multiple family lines.

Other Brothers

A number of other examples could be described. They include the Barber family of Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, and co. York, England; the Bowers (Bauer) family of Berks county, Pennsylvania, Frederick co, Virginia, and Baden, Germany; and the Mosby family of Charles City county, Virginia, and co. Norfolk, England.   For full descriptions and references, and the ancestries of these families as well as those of the Slack and Altrate families, see The Omnibus Ancestry, available for download at Lulu.com.

In all of these cases, it was knowledge that two men were brothers that allowed the convergent power of the web to identify their common origin.


Keep in mind that merely finding the names of two brothers in earlier records at the same location is often insufficient to establish that the records concern those brothers. To take an extreme example, starting with the names of two brothers named John and James Smith would likely turn up hundreds of possible convergences, only one of which may be the proverbial needle in the haystack.

It’s only in the instance of rare names (first and/or last) that names alone might lead one to assume identity. The Altrates/Altreds are possibly a case in point, as the surname is rare, especially when appearing with the given names Christopher and Michael.

Nevertheless in all the cases cited, additional information was available that supported identity. The Altrates/Altreds were thought to have a property interest in Jagsthausen, only a few miles from the convergent location of Ruchsen. The Slack brothers, while having a moderately uncommon surname, were chiefly identified as the sons of Hendrick through their age spread and a close correspondence in birth and christening dates, along with other considerations that were described in the original blog entry.

Thus when applying a starter relationship to look for convergence on a common location, all known facts should be exploited to either confirm or disconfirm the convergence. In this regard the enterprise is similar to other applications of the genealogist’s craft.


[1] The sharp-eyed reader will have noticed that Ruchsen is in Baden while Jagsthausen is in Württemberg. Until 1846 Ruchsen was an exclave of Baden, being completely surrounded by Württemberg. In that year territories were exchanged that gave it land access to the rest of Baden. However, a border remained between Ruchsen and Jagsthausen (information retrieved from https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruchsen, 2016).

Picture attribution: Owner Jen’s Art & Soul, Brotherly Love, retrieved from https://www.flickr.com/photos/frazzledjen/177002473. Used under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license.


18. Witches, Wizards, Ghosts, and Things That Go Bump in the Night

Superstition and magic have no doubt played a role in society ever since there was society. By spanning many countries and several centuries, the genealogist’s craft occasionally uncovers interesting anecdotes that appeal to the modern sense of the offbeat, quirky, and downright spooky. What better time to stir them up from the bottom of a bubbling pot, than Halloween?


The most elaborate witch story in my background is that of the McQueen witch, who cast her spells around the end of the 17th century. John McQueen of Pollochaig, co. Inverness, Scotland, was a famous sportsman who went out one day hoping to kill a deer. After a long way he came across one, which went down when shot. But when John scoured the area for his prize, it couldn’t be found. He returned home empty-handed, and that night told the story at his fireside.


Certain he had killed his quarry, he returned the next morning to the spot. There he met an old woman, who said to him, “Black John son of Dougall, take the lead out of my foot which you put into it yesterday.” This he did, and when finished he asked her for a wish or blessing. She thought a moment, and replied, “Your best day will be your worst day, and your worst day will be your best day.”

Years later this prophecy became true, when John’s son was captured at the Battle of Preston and was subsequently transported overseas. It was John’s worst day for the future of his sept in Scotland.  But it was his best day for the future of his many descendants in America [1, 2].

Other ancestral lines had their witch anecdotes as well, of a much deadlier shade. In 16th century Germany, one of my direct ancestors through the Foster family was Gertrud Stuell, wife of Hans Stuell, a householder near Siegen. In 1590 she was accused of bewitching livestock, found guilty, and burned [1, 3].

Nor were family members absent from the other end of the legal system. My wife’s many-great-uncle John Emerson was one of the accusers in the infamous Salem witch trials in Massachusetts in 1692. That year his own uncle, a minister of the same name, contributed to the witch hysteria by claiming to have witnessed a shooting of three men, who then rose up and fired a silver gun with a type of bullet never seen before. Rev. Emerson wrote:

The Devil and his Agents were the cause of all the Molestations. The Ambushments of the Good People of Glocester were caused by Daemons in the Shape of Armed Indians and Frenchmen. [1, 4]

My favorite witch story, however, had a very different ending from the horrifying ones of Siegen and Salem. My ancestor Jeremiah Collet, Sr., from whom I descend through the Withers family, was a fishmonger of Devizes, co. Wiltshire, England, who immigrated to Pennsylvania. A few months later, in Feb 1683/4, he served on a jury in Chester (now Delaware) county, and heard the case of Margaret Matson. Matson was accused of practicing witchcraft, specifically of killing livestock by bewitching it and appearing in spectral form. After hearing the case, Jeremiah and his fellow jurors returned their verdict. The accused was found guilty not of witchcraft, but of “having the common fame of a witch” — for which she merely had to post bond for good behavior!

The case is considered historically significant in reflecting hostility in the Quaker colony toward witchcraft accusations, in sharp contrast to attitudes that would be revealed in Salem a decade later. There is even a legend, possibly apocryphal, that when dismissing the charge of witchcraft against Matson, William Penn affirmed her right to ride a broomstick [1, 5, 6].


The wizards in my family were Thomas Ashton (ca 1394?- aft 1445) and Edmund Trafford (ca 1393-1457/8), ancestors through both the Snyder-Harbour and Ellis families. These co. Lancaster gentlemen claimed to have discovered an elixir that restored youth and changed base metals into gold and silver. In my opinion their major claim to wizardry, however, is that in 1446 they managed to persuade the King to override an earlier law prohibiting alchemy, and to grant them a patent to practice it [1, 7, 8]. Otherwise I presume their deaths, if not their lack of riches, tended to discredit them.


The legend of the ghost of Phillip Babb (ca 1602?-1670/1), my ancestor through the Withers-Davis families, was known to author Nathaniel Hawthorne. Phillip, a fishing master on Hogg Island in the Isles of Shoals off the coast of what is now Maine, was held to have been a crew member for the notorious pirate Capt. Kidd [1, 9]. In 1852, Hawthorne reported:

Old Babb, the ghost, has a ring around his neck, and is supposed either to have been hung or to have had his throat cut, but he steadfastly declines telling the mode of his death. There is a luminous appearance about him as he walks, and his face is pale and very dreadful. [10]

As with all good stories of the supernatural, the legend became more elaborate as time passed. In 1873, a Shoals historian named Celia Thayer reported:

There is a superstition among the islanders that Philip Babb… still haunts Appledore [another Shoals island]; and no consideration would induce the more timid to walk alone after dark over a certain shingly beach on that island, at the top of the cove bearing Babb’s name — for there the uneasy spirit is oftenest seen. He is supposed to have been so desperately wicked when alive that there is no rest for him in his grave. His dress is a coarse, striped butcher’s frock, with a leather belt, to which is attached a sheath containing a ghostly knife, sharp and glittering, which it is his delight to brandish in the face of terrified humanity. One of the Shoalers is perfectly certain that he and Babb have met, and he shudders with real horror, recalling the meeting. This is his story. It was after sunset (of course), and he was coming around the corner of a work-shop, when he saw a wild and dreadful figure advancing toward him; his first thought was that someone wished to make him the victim of a practical joke, and he called out something to the effect that he “wasn’t afraid”; but the thing came near with a ghastly face and hollow eyes, and assuming a fiendish expression, took out the knife from its belt and flourished it in the face of the Shoaler … [10]

In 1929, Oscar Laighton went still further. In his account, also set on Appledore Island, Babb had dug for treasure – presumed to be Capt. Kidd’s – making a deep pit 30 feet wide. An iron chest being discovered at the bottom, Babb and a friend broke it open, upon which smoke and red hot horseshoes flew out. From his death until the Coast Guard built a structure on the spot, Babb’s ghost persisted near the cove’s head — to which no islander would come near [10].

Things That Go Bump in the Night

I end with an anecdote concerning Elizabeth Addams Bull Rossiter (1713/4-1810), my ancestor through the Speece-Robinson familes. In a letter soon after her death, a granddaughter wrote:

. . . our respected grandmother left this world in April; her illness was very short and she was quite sensible until the last few minutes. The day before she died she mentioned to her son and daughter that she had distinctly heard three little taps on the head of her bed, and on that hour the next day she would depart, as her father had heard the same, and she believed it a token for her to be prepared. At the hour mentioned she expired. [11]

Presumably my esteemed many-great-grandmother bequeathed her ancestral death taps to a child other than the daughter who was my ancestor. In my branch of the family they have not been heard this many a generation. But with October 31st fast approaching, one never knows. Happy Halloween!


[1] Boles, D.B. (2016). The Omnibus Ancestry. Available through Lulu.

[2] The story is traditional, but I am endebted to Donna Hechler Porter (http://theflyingshuttle.blogspot.com/2014_05_01_archive.html) for suggesting which day was the worst and the best, a point left vague in the traditional telling. It’s about as perfect an ending to the story as one could wish.

[3] Boles, H.W., & Boles, D.B. (1990). Foster Ancestors: Some Europeans, Immigrants, Colonists, and Pioneers. Decorah, Iowa: The Anundsen Publishing Co. Available through Lulu.

[4] Information retrieved from http://suite101.com/article/ebenezer-babson-and-the-1692-gloucester-massachusetts-mystery-a328784 (2015).

[5] Boles, D.B., & Boles, H.W. (1998). Withers-Davis Ancestry. Decorah, Iowa: The Anundsen Publishing Co. Available through Lulu.

[6] Information retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_Matson (2015).

[7] Boles, D.B. (2005). Snyder-Harbour Ancestry. Available through Lulu.

[8] Boles, H.W., & Boles, D.B. (1994). Ellis Ancestors: Some Immigrants, Colonists, and Pioneers. Kalamazoo, Mich: Private print. Available through Lulu.

[9] Which however was certainly untrue, in that Kidd’s piracy did not occur until a generation after Phillip’s death (Withers-Davis Ancestry, op. cit., available through Lulu).

[10] Rutledge, L.V. (1965). The Isles of Shoals in Lore and Legend. Barre, Mass: Barre Publishers.

[11] Boles, D.B., & Boles, H.W. (1997). Speece-Robinson Ancestry. Ozark, Mo: Dogwood Printing. Available through Lulu.

Picture attribution:

“A Visit to the Witch” by Edward Frederick Brewtnall (1882). Public domain.

7. Thomas McIntire, Revolutionary Hero

For more on the McIntire family and its ancestral connections to the Bachiler, Brown, Dungan, Holbrook, Large, Swift, Weaver, and Wing families, see The Omnibus Ancestry, available through Lulu.com.

When I moved to Alabama with my family in 2000, little did I know that I had a family member who played a role in the history of Mississippi, our immediate neighbor to the west. His name was Thomas McIntire, and he was my ancestor through my grandmother Opal Cecile Speece Bowers (McIntire > Speece > Bowers > Boles) [1]. I came across references to his Mississippi service about three years ago, during a routine search of web sources.

One would never have predicted future heroism from Thomas’ humble beginnings. He married in 1773, two years before the start of the Revolution, to Mary Bailey. His Virginia land stradding the border between Berkeley and Frederick counties was bounded by landmarks named Beargarden Ridge and Sleepy Creek, evoking the slow pace of life in the country. About a year later he built a grist mill, presumably to make meal from the corn that he and his neighbors grew [1].

What enticed Thomas to enlist in the American army in January 1776, and in Pennsylvania, is partially a matter of speculation. His father Charles had settled on land in Harrison county, (now West) Virginia, in 1773 [1]. The location was part of the frontier that experienced increasing tension with the Indians in 1774. While widespread Indian raids would not occur until 1777 [17], the perceived danger provoked a family decision to gather at a relatively safer point to the east [14]. The choice appears to have fallen on what would later be Fayette county, in southwestern Pennsylvania, part of territory Virginia claimed at the time and called Yohogania county.  Thus on 9 January 1778, Thomas sold a part ownership of Berkeley county land by power of attorney, and was then termed a resident of Yohogania county [15]. The person given a power of attorney was Dennis Springer, a known resident of Fayette county [16]; furthermore, in 1783, Charles’ widow Elender was living in what would become Fayette county [1].

It may that in Thomas’ eyes, the time to enlist had simply come. The Revolutionary War was over 8 months old, and Congress had authorized frontier enlistments the previous June [2]. Toward the end of 1775 there was a major, well-publicized action in progress against Quebec, the disastrous outcome of which would not be known until 10 days after Thomas’ enlistment on 8 January 1776 [3]. Then again, maybe it was simply an adventurous birthday present to himself, for he would turn 32 years of age the very next day, January 9th [1].

Thomas McIntire’s Early Service

Thomas enlisted as an ensign in the 3rd Pennsylvania Battalion of the Continental Army. He was quickly promoted to 2nd Lieutenant, and in November was in action at Ft. Washington [1]. The fort, at the northwestern corner of the present-day borough of Manhattan, New York, was the last remaining position of the American army following their defeat in the British campaign for New York. Gen. Washington issued a discretionary order to abandon it, but Col. Robert Magaw elected to defend it. The fort fell quickly when attacked on three sides, with 59 Americans killed, 96 wounded, and nearly 3000 captured [4]. Thomas McIntire was among the wounded and captured [1].

He spent the next 9 months in captivity, and was fortunate to be among the mere 30% of prisoners who survived. The rest died of starvation, exposure, or disease. It is likely that his status as an ensign resulted in better treatment than the enlisted men, with many officers given parole and allowed to roam the city [5]. He was exchanged in August 1777, meaning that he and other American officers were traded for imprisoned British officers [1].

The U.S.S. Rattletrap

Returning to western Pennsylvania, Thomas found that there was no vacancy for an ensign in his regiment [6], his previous 2nd Lt. rank apparently being an unrecognized field promotion. Instead he there became 1st Lt. of an “independent” company [1]. This designation was perhaps intentionally left vague for reasons of national security. For with this appointment, Thomas entered the pages of American history: His service was in connection with a secret raid down the Mississippi River, authorized directly by the Continental Congress under the command of Capt. James Willing [1].

The expedition had been envisioned by Col. George Morgan, of Ft. Pitt (later Pittsburgh), and endorsed by Gen. Benedict Arnold who suggested a force of 1500 men. In subsequent Congressional debate, Robert Morris of Pennsylvania emphasized the proceeds that would come from the seizure of British military provisions, as well as the benefits of an establishment of trade with Spanish New Orleans. In the end, a committee authorized recruitment of only 24 men, and the mission was trimmed back from attacking Mobile and Pensacola to delivering dispatches to Louisiana [7]. Or at least that is what the larger Congress was told; in fact Willing was secretly charged with seizing British property and selling it if possible [12, 13].

By Christmas 1777, Capt. Willing was in command of the armed boat U.S.S. Rattletrap and a force of 30 men. One of them was Lt. Thomas McIntire [7]. The boat is said to have been a galley with around ten oars and a stern sweep, armed with two swivel guns, much like that illustrated by artist Charles H. Waterhouse in “Willing’s Marine Expedition, February 1778” [12]. The Rattletrap was underway on the Ohio River by January 11th. Although spies became almost immediately aware of the expedition, the English thought it would turn north at the Mississippi River and attack Fort Kaskaskia in the southern part of what is now Illinois. More accurate intelligence reached British West Florida in February, but was discounted. Winter seemed an unlikely time for invasion [7].

WaterhouseBy the time the force reached the Yazoo River above Walnut Hills (now Vicksburg, Mississippi), it had swelled to about 100 men. On 18 February 1778, Lt. McIntire commanded an advance party in canoes that captured four British Indian agents at Walnut Hills, and two prominent Tories at Natchez, Mississippi. On the way to Natchez, the party captured a small boat. Repeating an epithet that Alexander McIntosh, one of its occupants, had reportedly used to refer to Willing, McIntire sardonically told him that the “damned scoundrel James Willing is come once more to pay you a Visit”. Natchez pledged neutrality on 21 February, an agreement assisted by rumors spread by the Americans that a force of 2000 men was on the way. Success bred success; nearly 100 more men joined the expedition [7].

The force proceeded southward, looting and sometimes burning Tory properties. McIntire continued downriver. On 23 February, aided by fog, he and his party captured the 16-gun English vessel Rebecca at Manchac, Louisiana [7, 8], which embarrassingly had been sent upriver to stop the Americans [12]. They then joined the main force which was granted asylum in New Orleans by Spanish Gov. Bernardo de Galvez. The Governor permitted the auction of captured Tory property, netting $62,000, as well as the purchase of supplies, and provided public buildings as barracks. Other British ships, their cargoes, and Tory property including slaves were captured while the American force was there. One Engish trading brig, the Neptune, was captured by a mixed party of American, French, and Spanish boatmen led by McIntire and another Lieutenant [12].

On 14 March, the British positioned the ship Sylph near New Orleans. Its captain, John Fergusson, sent a message to Galvez protesting the Governor’s warm reception of the Americans. When that wasn’t answered promptly he sent a second, adding a new complaint. He had received an insult from “a person who is a Rebel”, a certain Lt. McIntire:

… [Lt. McIntire] placed himself opposite to His Majesty’s Ship under my Command and made use of several threats, and provoking speeches, which I forbare to resent, out of respect to your Nation. [7]

Galvez was reportedly highly amused by McIntire’s actions. For his part McIntire was lucky: It was only for fear of a provoking a confrontation with Spain that Fergusson hadn’t taken action against him. Instead the captain demanded that the “Rebel” be handed over for punishment. Galvez politely declined, stating that since the offense was in words the punishment should be as well [7].

The Sylph was soon joined by a second British ship, the Hound, increasing tensions in Spanish New Orleans. Conditions north of the city deteriorated for the Americans, as the British reasserted control over the east bank of the Mississippi [7].

In August 1778 most of the American force left under Spanish safe conduct, marching through Louisiana to Fort Kaskaskia. However, Capt. Willing, Lt. McIntire, and a few others remained behind. On 15 November, despite the presence of British ships patrolling the waterways out of New Orleans, they escaped the city aboard a sloop bound for Philadelphia. Unfortunately this was captured by a British privateer off Delaware. Willing was carried to Long Island, New York, where he was imprisoned for some time before being exchanged [7, 12].

And what of Thomas McIntire? Incredibly, after Willings’ departure he and a companion retook the sloop and ran it aground on the eastern shore of Maryland, making good their escape. After writing a memorial on his service to the Board of War in Philadelphia, McIntire was promptly promoted to Captain [1].

Subsequent Service

Beginning in March 1779, Capt. Thomas McIntire commanded an independent company assigned to Fort Pitt. He served with that company in Col. Daniel Brodhead’s Expedition in August and September of that year, proceeding up the Allegheny River into New York, destroying Seneca Indian villages and crops and thus bringing some relief to Pennsylvania settlers from Indian raids [1]. McIntire personally delivered Brodhead’s dispatch on the expedition to George Washington at West Point, New York [11]. For their services, Brodhead and his officers received the thanks of the Continental Congress and Gen. Washington specifically [1].

Late in September 1779, Capt. McIntire and his company were equipped as light dragoons. In July of the following year he was again in action. Wyandot Indians had conducted a raid near Fort McIntosh (now Beaver, Pennsylvania), killing four reapers and capturing a fifth.  As Brodhead subsequently reported to Washington:

Captain [Thomas] McIntyre ambushed Indians on their return, sunk two canoes, killed a number of Indians [later revealed from Indian informants to be 18 or 19, with others missing], took much plunder, and retook prisoner. [11]

To this, Gen. Washington replied in August 1780:

I am pleased to hear of the success of the parties under Captains Brady and McIntire to whom you will be pleased to express my thanks for their conduct. These affairs tho’ apparently small have considerable influence upon Indians. [11]

Underlining the problem of obtaining long-term peace on the frontier, in 1791 Thomas McIntire’s brother John and John’s wife Rachel were killed by Indians in Harrison county, (West) Virginia [14].


Thomas McIntire was “deranged” in January 1782, a military term indicating that he was decommissioned because of downsizing. He was variously taxed in Berkeley or Frederick county in the 1780s, but also acquired land in Harrison county, (West) Virginia [1]. In the 1st Congress of the United States, meeting 1789-1791, “Thomas McIntyre” was among those Revolutionary officers whose names were brought forward for commutation pay. The bill was tabled, but it was revived and passed both the House and Senate in the 2nd Congress [9].

There has been much debate over the impact of the Willing raid in which he played so prominent a role. The expedition had short-term negative consequences in turning many Mississippi inhabitants against the United States. However, it also revealed the military vulnerability of British West Florida [10]. Arguably in the long run it benefitted the nation by contributing to Gov. Galvez’ decision to seize Natchez and Pensacola in 1779-1781. With Spain having entered the war as a French (and thus U.S.) ally in 1779, a loss for Britain was a gain for the United States. No doubt Thomas McIntire experienced some small sense of satisfaction when a portion of West Florida was annexed into the nation’s Mississippi Territory in 1812.

A year later Thomas wrote a letter to his children in McIntire.1813.letterOhio [1]:

November ye 18th – 1813 respeted suns and daughters I take this opertunety to rite to you to aquant you that I am in resenable health at present as good as I can expet for old age …

… in generl is all well we have had a very bad Season for crops that caused corn to be very indefrent …

The slow pace of life in the country had long since reasserted itself. Thomas McIntire, Revolutionary Hero, died seven years later, at the age of 76 [1].

For more on the McIntire family and its ancestral connections to the Bachiler, Brown, Dungan, Holbrook, Large, Swift, Weaver, and Wing families, see The Omnibus Ancestry, available through Lulu.com.


[1] Boles, D.B. (2016). The Omnibus Ancestry, available through Lulu.com.

[2] Information retrieved from http://www.san.beck.org/13-5-WarofIndependence.html (2015).

[3] Burnett, E.C. (1921). Letters of Members of the Continental Congress. Washington, DC: The Carnegie Institution, vol. 1.

[4] Information retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Fort_Washington (2015).

[5] Information retrieved from http://www.earlyamerica.com/review/2002_summer_fall/pows.htm (2015).

[6] Hannings. B. (2008). Chronology of the American Revolution. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company.

[7] Haynes, R.V. (1976). The Natchez District and the American Revolution. University Press of Mississippi.

[8] Information retrieved from http://www.vaiden.net/mississippi_highlights.html (2012).

[9] Ancestry.com. U.S. House of Representative Private Claims, Vol. 2 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2000.

[10] Haynes, R.V. (2000). Mississippi under British rule – British West Florida. Online article posted at http://mshistorynow.mdah.state.ms.us/articles/66/mississippi-under-british-rule-british-west-florida.

[11] Kellogg, L.P. (1917). Frontier Retreat on the Upper Ohio 1779-1781. Madison, Wisc: State Historical Society of Wisc.

[12] Smith, C.R. (1975). Marines in the Revolution. Washington, DC: History and Museums Division, Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps.

[13] La. Historical Quarterly, v. 15, pp. 5-36 (1932).

[14] Taylor, J.M., & Salisbury, L.M. (1981). Charles McIntire of Colonial Virginia. Sarasota, FL: private print, p. 14.

[15] Shuck, L.G. (1999). Berkeley Co, [W]Va Deeds and Will Abstracts. Apollo, PA: Closson Press.

[16] Irwin, R.B. (1987). A Springer Family History. Decorah, Iowa: Anundsen Publishing Co.

[17] Haymond, H. (1910). History of Harrison County, West Virginia. Morgantown, WVa: Acme Publishing Co.

Painting attribution: Charles H. Waterhouse, Willing’s Marine Expedition, February 1778. Artwork commissioned for and appearing in the government-press, uncopyrighted Marines in the Revolution (author Charles R. Smith; Washington, DC: History and Museums Division, Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, 1975), and thus believed to be in the public domain.