JUST RELEASED! The Omnibus Ancestry, 3rd Edition

Or if you prefer formal titles, The Omnibus Ancestry: 619 Documented American and European Lines.  This newly revised edition extends many ancestral lines, drops a small handful, and adds over 30 new ones since the 2nd edition. As indicated by the title, a total of 619 are now covered, with many carried back to about the year 1350. This is the most up-to-date and definitive ancestry of the Boles-Bowers and Barth-Hickey families across their many limbs and branches.

THE OMNIBUS ANCESTRY.3rd.Lulu.cover.c

The book updates numerous previous publications in handy, condensed, corrected, and referenced form.  Besides the previous editions of The Omnibus Ancestry, the 10 books it updates include:

  • Barth-Hickey Ancestry
  • Bowers-Russell Ancestry
  • Ellis Ancestors: Some Immigrants, Colonists, and Pioneers
  • Foster Ancestors: Some Europeans, Immigrants, Colonists, and Pioneers
  • Snyder-Harbour Ancestry
  • Some Earlier Americans: Boles-Linton Ancestors
  • Speece-Robinson Ancestry
  • Stayman-McCrosky Ancestry
  • The Bower-Bowers Descendants of Johann Jacob Bauer
  • Withers-Davis Ancestry

A full list of the ancestral lines appears at the Bolesbooks web site.

Notes are used to elaborate on the text, to explain the logic behind conclusions, to indicate where further generations may be found before 1350, to provide references, and to make suggestions for further research.  However, the notes are listed separately and do not intrude should you prefer a smooth reading of the text.

There’s never been a better time to check out The Omnibus Ancestry!  To access a preview on the Lulu publication page, please click here.

31. Three Printed Books

Although my blog entries have emphasized downloadable publications, Bolesbooks actually offers three printed books that are otherwise unavailable in electronic form. Yes, that’s right: Real paper and real binding! They’re described below, but for access to indexes, prices, and ordering information, please visit the Bolesbooks web site.

Barth-Hickey Ancestry

(358 pages, softbound). With the additional familes of Bodine, Bowman, Brown, Brownlee, Burnett, Crocheron, Drury, Finch, French, Greiner, Gullett, Heisdorfer, Housh, Langham, Malmberg, Martin, McClain, McMurtrie, Millard, Mills, Phillips, Reynolds, Robinson, Rung, Russell, Shercliffe, Sinnott, Spinke, Swanson, Wilson, and Wolcott. Includes pictures.  Limited copies remaining; will not be reprinted.

The Barth-Hickey Ancestry covers a particularly strong concentration of families from St. Mary’s co, Md, especially Catholic families in the 1600s and 1700s. Other major geographic areas variously inhabited by Protestant or Catholic ancestors were Iowa, Ind, and NJ; Macon co, Ill; Nelson co, Ky; Washington co, Pa; Somerset co, Md; and Augusta co, Va. Other names, areas, and periods are also represented.

Speece-Robinson Ancestry

(222 pages, softbound). Co-author Harold W. Boles. With the additional families of Addams, Altruth, Auliffe, Bailey, Brown, Cole, Conklin, Cunningham, Dick, Dobbs, Doors, Flexney, Gobels, Hinds, McIntire, op den Graeff, Pletges, Princehouse, Rossiter, Tarpley, Tomey, and Williams. And Addenda on the Adams, Bachiler, Dungan, Holbrook, Large, Latham, Swift, Weaver, and Wing Families. Includes pictures.  Very limited copies remaining; will not be reprinted.

The Speece-Robinson Ancestry covers a number of families from Champaign and Shelby counties, Ohio; Frederick co, Va; Berkeley and Morgan counties, WVa; Bucks and Philadelphia counties, Pa; what is now Union co, NJ; New England; and England, Ireland, and Germany. The American coverage is particularly strong in the 1700s and 1800s, but there is a substantial segment of material from the 1600s as well. Other names, areas, and periods are also represented.

Withers-Davis Ancestry

(427 pages, hardbound). Co-author Harold W. Boles. With the additional families of Abraham, Babb, Bachiler, Chandler, Collet, David, Davies, Hollingsworth, Hussey, Jefferis, Lewis, Martin, May, Nash, Nowell, Perkins, Powell, Ree, Roberts, Sloper, Tarrant, Wise, Wood, and Woolaston. Also numerous Welsh families ancestral to William, David, and Ralph Lewis, and John Bevan, plus their royal descents.  Will not be reprinted.

The Withers-Davis Ancestry covers a large concentration of families from the area of Chester and Delaware counties, Pennsylvania; New Castle co, Delaware; New England; co. Wilts, England; and co. Glamorgan and surrounding areas of Wales. Many though by no means all of the families were Quaker. Coverage in America is particularly heavy in the 1600s and 1700s, making the book indispensable to those seeking their colonial roots. Other names, areas, and periods are also represented.

books.cover

 

ANCESTRAL LINES AND INTERMARRIAGES in The Omnibus Ancestry: 589 Documented American and European Lines

This book may be previewed at Lulu (http://www.lulu.com/shop/david-b-boles/the-omnibus-ancestry-589-documented-american-and-european-lines/ebook/product-22557958.html).

Only the surnames of direct ancestors are shown, with intermarriages in alphabetical order inside parentheses. For instance, the “Bowers Line (Albert, Boles, Jost, Lindeman, Reimbach, Russell, Speece, Yerian)” entry reflects the marriage of Esther L. Bowers with Harold W. Boles, with the other marriages taking place in earlier generations. All of those are family surnames, and are in Esther’s direct ancestral line. Keep in mind that these families themselves may have had intemarriages. For instance, looking up the Yerian name produces the entry “Yerian/Jurian/Irion Line (Bollin, Bowers, Conradi, Dorn, Fosselman, Haug, Knopf, Pfister)”. In turn each of these may have had intermarriages, and so on.

However note that in some instances, especially in historical Welsh families, surnames were not used. In those instances the intermarriages are more reflective of personal names than family names. For example, the “Owen Line (Rhys)” entry reflects the marriage of Wenllian ferch Owen, with William ap Rhys (i.e., Wenllian daughter of Owen, with William son of Rhys).

Abercrombie Line (Rattray)

Abercromby Line (Maule)

Abernethy Line (Borthwick, Ogilvy, Stewart)

Abraham Line (Martin)

Ackerly Line (Oliver)

Addams Line (op den Graeff, Rossiter)

Almot Line (Clenche, Naunton)

Altrate (Altruth, Alteried, Alterriedt) Line (Dick, Ecklin, Schantzenbach)

Amyas Line (Clenche)

Andreas Line (Larsdotter, Nilsson)

Andrews Line (Button)

Arrants / Arnst Line (Phillips, Price, Smith)

Ashton Line (Byron, Trafford)

Assiter Line (Payne)

Atwood Line (Coons, Fishback)

Auliffe Line (Tomey)

Austin Line (Fleming)

Babb Line (Davis, Hussey, Lewis)

Bachiler / Bachelor Line (Bate, Wing)

Baer / Bare Line (Mylin, Stayman, Witmer)

Bailey Line (McIntire)

Ballow Line (Goode, Ripley)

Banister Line (Chappell)

Barber (James) Line (Roadshaw, Stake, Tidmarsh, Wright)

Barber (William) Line (Burnet, Parker)

Barnes Line (Gullett)

Barrier / Berger Line (Kunz, Massey, Reynolds)

Barth / Bard / Bart Line (Boles, Ebert, Hickey, Jost, Malmberg, Nerbel, Rung)

Bartram Line (Cartlidge)

Basset (Thomas of Miscin) Line (Evan, Evans, Fleming, Griffith, Marcross, Morgan, Thomas)

Basset (Thomas of Saint Hilari) Line (Caerdydd, Llywelyn)

Bateman Line (Ellis)

Beaton / Bethune (David) Line (Boswell, Duddingston, Hamilton, Stewart, Stirling)

Beaton / Bethune (John) Line

Beauchamp Line (St. John)

Beaufort Line (Holand, Roet, Stewart)

Beaumont Line (Botreaux, Everingham, Vere)

Becx Line (Neeff, Diepenbroucks)

Beer Line (Stuell)

Belson Line (Jordan)

Bergen Line (Lubbertsen, Rapelje, Sleght)

Bidel Line (Bruckenfelder, Wagner)

Binford Line (Ellyson, Mosby)

Blaugdone / Blackden Line (Brock, Watts)

Bleijck Line (Jans, Nevius)

Bodine Line (Brown, Crocheron, Finch, Sebring)

Boles / Bole Line (Barth, Bowers, Dickison, Foster, Linton, Massey, Painter)

Bollin Line (Irion)

Borthwick Line (Abernethy, Hay)

Bos Line (Leenderts, Maartens, Slecht)

Boswell Line (Bethune, Melville)

Boteler Line (Gerard, Plumpton)

Botreaux Line (Daubeny, Hungerford, Beaumont, St. Lo)

Bourgogne Line (Dampierre, Holland, Kleve)

Bowers / Bauer Line (Albert, Boles, Jost, Lindeman, Reimbach, Russell, Speece, Yerian)

Bowman Line (Martin, Robinson)

Boyd Line (Gifford, Gordon, Maxwell, Montgomerie)

Bradshagh Line (St. John)

Brasseur Line (Ellis)

Brereton Line (Savage, Venables)

Brock Line (Blaugdone)

Bromflete Line (Clifford, FitzHugh, Saint John)

Brown (James) Line (Bodine, Drury, Langham, Reynolds, Russell)

Brown (Richard) Line (Davis, McQueen, Russell, Stevenson, Taylor)

Brown (Thomas) Line (Large, McIntire)

Brownlee Line (McClain, Walcott, Wilson)

Brusyard Line (Naunton)

Buchanan Line (Gray)

Burckhart Line (Hahlman)

Burnett Line (Barber, Gullett, Roberts)

Busch Line (Busch, Scholt)

Buster Line (Foster, Woods)

Button Line (Andrews, Hallyn, Hywel, Ieuan, John)

Cadwalader Line (Ellis)

Calder Line (Campbell, Rose, Sutherland)

Campbell (Archibald of Argyll) Line (Campbell, Gordon, Hamilton, Macintosh, Somerville, Stewart, Stuart)

Campbell (Archibald of Auchinbreck) Line (Campbell, Lamont, Scrymgeour, Stewart)

Campbell (Archibald of Cawdor) Line (Calder, Campbell, Grant, Stuart)

Campbell (Duncan) Line (Murray, Moncreiffe, Stewart)

Carnegie Line (Guthrie, Kinnaird, Lindsay, Scrymgeour, Strachan, Vaus)

Cartlidge Line (Bartram, Need, Swan, Swifte, Wright)

Cary Line (Goodale, Hobson, Milner, Pleasants, Taylor)

Chandler Line (Benger, Downham, Jefferis, Smith, Spratt)

Chapman Line (Gill, McFadden)

Chappell Line (Banister, Binford)

Cheyne Line (Rose)

Chichele Line (Barret, Kene, Knolles)

Chicheley Line (Dennis, Gronwy, Maelog)

Chisholm Line (Bisset, Halyburton, Sutherland)

Clark Line (McCrosky)

Clench / Clenche Line (Almot, Amyas, Dameron)

Clifford Line (Beauchamp, Bromflete, Dacre, Melford, Percy, Ross, Saint John)

Coles Line (Hawxhurst, Townsend)

Colfer Line (Power, Sinnott)

Collet Line (May, Withers)

Colville Line (Arcy, Wandesford)

Conklin / Conklyn / Conklyn / Concklyne Line (Allseabrook, Robinson, Tarbell, Williams, Youngs)

Conradi Line (Irion, Teichmann)

Cool Line (Van Kouwenhoven)

Coons / Kuntze Line (Atwood, Foster, Hanback, Schuster, Steiger)

Cowdray Line (Rythe)

Cradoc Line (Gwyn, Perrot)

Cranstoun Line (Ruthven)

Crew Line (Ellyson, Gattley)

Crichton Line (Seton)

Crocheron Line (Bodine)

Cunningham Line (Robinson, Tomey)

Dacre Line (Clifford, Neville)

Dafydd (ap Hywel) Line (Hywel, Rhys)

Dafydd (ap Rees) Line (Havard, John, Madog)

Dameron Line (Clench, Gosnold, Smith, Thomas)

David (ap Hopkin) Line (Howel)

David (ap Llewelyn) Line (Gamage)

David (ap Morgan) Line (Gwyn, Morgan, Philip, William)

David (ap Walhin) Line (Price)

David (John) Line (Lewis)

Davis (Nathaniel) Line (Babb, Lewis, Martin, Withers)

Davis (William) Line (Hobson)

Dennis Line (Bere, Gamage, Vaughan)

Denniston Line (Maxwell)

Dick Line (Altrate, McIntire)

Dickison / Dickason / Dickinson Line (Boles, Fowler, Howland, Townsend)

Dietz Line (Stammler)

Domville Line (Hulse)

Dorn Line (Schaeffer, Yerian)

Douglas (Archibald) Line (Graham, Moray, Stewart)

Douglas (George) Line (Graham, Hay, Sibbald, Stewart)

Douglas (Henry) Line (Lindsay, Lovell)

Douglas (James) Line (Halyburton)

Douglas (William of Drumlanrig) Line (Innes, Maxwell, Murray)

Douglas (William of Nithsdale) Line (Sinclair, Stewart)

Downing Line (Ellis, Slack)

Drake Line (Dungan, Oliver)

Dresler Line (Friesenhagen)

Drummond Line (Campbell, Graham, Lindsay, Murray, Ruthven, Sinclair)

Drury Line (Brown, Hayden, Payne)

Duddingston Line (Beaton)

Dunbar Line (Lindsay, Seton)

Dundas Line (Douglas, Moncreiffe, Stewart)

Dungan (Jeremiah) Line (Drake, Hellings, Latham, Smith, Weaver)

Dungan (William) Line (Large, Weaver, Wing)

Ecklin Line (Alterriedt)

Edmonstone Line (Graham, Shaw, Stewart)

Eger / Ege Line (Friesenhagen)

Ellis (Ellis) Line (Bateman, Cadwalader, Downing, Morgan)

Ellis (Jesse) Line (Brasseur, Foster, Holman, Slack, Veatch)

Ellyson Line (Binford, Crew, Gerard, Hamilton, Jordan, Spence)

Emerson Line (Brewster, Crabbe, Wolcott)

Erb Line (Painter)

Ermentraudt / Armentrout Line (Friedli, Hain, Russell)

Erskine Line (Douglas, Keith, Lindsay)

Evan (ap Evan) Line (Basset, Thomas)

Evan (ap Griffith) Line (David, Griffith)

Evan (ap Llewelyn) Line (Vaughan)

Evan (ap Madoc) Line (David)

Evan (Gitto) Line (Richard)

Evans Line (Basset, Evan, Morgan, Price, Rees, Thomas, Vaughan)

Everingham Line (Beaumont)

Faris Line (McCrosky)

Ferris Line (Woodson)

Finch Line (Bodine)

Fischbach Line (Heimbach, Lueck)

Fischer Line (Probst)

Fishback Line (Atwood, Hager, Heimbach, Holtzclaw)

FitzHugh Line (Bromflete, Grey, Lescrope)

Fleming (Christopher) Line (Austin, Herbert, Mansel, Meyrick, Thomas)

Flender (Henchen) Line (Busch, Holtzclau, Latsch)

Flender (Henrich) Line (Busch, Holtzklau)

Flexney Line (Rossiter)

Forbes Line (Douglas, Grant, Keith, Kennedy, Seton, Stewart)

Ford Line (Shercliffe)

Fosselman Line (Probst, Schäffer, Yerian)

Foster Line (Boles, Buster, Coons, Ellis, Parish, Smith)

Foulshurst Line (Gerard, Mainwaring, Vernon)

Fowler Line (Dickinson, Hoyt, Newell)

Friedli Line (Ermentraudt, Saltzgeber)

Friesenhagen Line (Dresler, Eger, Hager)

Gainsford Line (Sidney, White)

Gaisenhofer Line (Goeller)

Gam Line (Gwilim, Ieuan, Vaughan)

Gamage Line (David, Dennis, Hugh, Prichard, Rodburgh)

Gattley Line (Crew)

Gerard Line (Boteler, Foulshurst, Slye, Snowe, Stanley, Strangeways, Trafford)

Gill Line (Chapman, Marcey)

Glen Line (Erskine, Ogilvy)

Glencarnie Line (Grant)

Gobels Line (Pletges)

Goeller Line (Gaisenhofer, Greiner, Wagner)

Goode Line (Ballow, Bennett)

Gordon (Adam) Line (Keith, Seton)

Gordon / Seton (Alexander of Huntly) Line (Campbell, Crichton, Fleming, Gordon, Stewart)

Gordon (Alexander of Lochinvar) Line (Boyd, Gordon, Kennedy)

Gosnold Line (Dameron, Kebell)

Goushill Line (FitzAlan, Stanley)

Graham (David) Line (Beaton, Douglas, Graham, Halyburton, Lovell, Mackintosh, Ogilvy, Scott)

Graham (Patrick) Line (Douglas, Stewart)

Graham (William) Line (Douglas, Drummond, Erskine, Keith, Murray)

Grant Line (Forbes, Glencarnie, Mackintosh, Murray, Ogilvy, Stewart)

Gray Line (Forbes, Mortimer, Rollo, Wemyss)

Greiner (Jacob) Line (Goeller, Greiner, Raquet, Schaff, Scheid)

Greiner (Nicolaus) Line (Golar)

Grey Line (FitzHugh, St. Quintin)

Griffith Line (Gruffudd, Jenkin, Mansel

Grim Line (Schantzenbach)

Groh Line (Roth, Wagner)

Gruffudd Line (Einion, Rhys)

Guelders Line (Kleve, Leiningen, Stewart, von Arkel)

Gullett Line (Barnes, Burnett, Housh, McClain, Mills, Robinson, Trice)

Guthrie Line (Maule)

Gwilim Line (Mansel, Richard)

Gwilym (ap Jenkin) Line (Gwilym, Llywelyn, Thomas)

Gwilym (ap Philip) Line (Davydd, Llywelyn)

Hager Line (Fishback, Friesenhagen)

Hallyn Line (Button, John, Morgan)

Halyburton (James) Line (Graham, Maule, Scrymgeour)

Halyburton (Patrick) Line (Douglas, Ruthven, Seton)

Hamilton Line (Beaton, Campbell, Douglas, Livingston, Stewart)

Hanback Line (Coons, Jung, Schneider)

Harbour Line (Packwood, Snyder, Thomas)

Harpway Line (Havard, Howell, Ieuan)

Harrington Line (Loring, Stanley)

Haug Line (Irion)

Havard (Jenkin) Line (Dafydd, Thomas, Vaughan, Watkin)

Havard (William) Line (Hywel)

Hawxhurst Line (Cole)

Hay (Thomas) Line (Hay, Stewart)

Hay (William) Line (Douglas, Hay

Hayden Line (Butler, Drury)

Heimbach (Johannes) Line (Fischbach)

Heimbach (Philipp) Line (Fischbach, Otterbach)

Heisdorfer Line (Holtze, Rung)

Hellings Line (Dungan, Parsons)

Hendrickse Line (Lubbertsen, Martense)

Henry Line (Boger, Schedler, Spies)

Hepburn Line (Borthwick, Home, Sinclair, Vaux, Wallace)

Herbert Line (Fleming, Morely, Thomas)

Herr Line (Loetscher, Mylin)

Herries Line (Douglas, Lindsay, Maxwell)

Hickey Line (Barth, Robinson, Russell, Sinnott)

Hieronymus Line (Rimpler)

Hobson Line (Cary, Davis)

Hochstrasser Line (Meili)

Hoffman Line (Probst, Rimpler)

Holbrook Line (Weaver)

Holland (Albrecht) Line (Bourgogne, Brieg)

Holland (Edmund) Line (FitzAlan, Plantagenet, Touchet)

Hollingsworth Line (Atkinson, Ree, Withers)

Holman / Hahlman / Heilmann Line (Burckhart, Ellis, Rudolph)

Holtzclaw Line (Fishback, Flender, Otterbach)

Home Line (Hay, Hepburn, Lauder, Pepdie)

Houghton Line (Stanley)

Hoult Line (Jolliffe, Shircliffe)

Housh Line (Gullett)

Howel (ab Evan) Line (Gibbon)

Howel (ap David) Line (Eva, Hywel, Llywelyn, Richard)

Howland Line (Dickinson, Tilley)

Hoyt Line (Fowler)

Hulse Line (Bruen, Domville, Vernon)

Hungerford Line (Botreaux, Hussey, Peverell, White)

Hurst Line (Marshe, Tilley)

Hussey Line (Babb, Bachiler, Perkins, Wood)

Hywel Line (David, Ieuan, Morgan)

Ieuan (ap Gruffudd) Line (Button, Gawdyn)

Ieuan (ap Gwilym) Line (Rhys)

Ieuan (ap Jenkin) Line (Harpway)

Innes Line (Douglas, Fraser, Ogilvy)

Jacobsdochter Line (Jacobsdr, Van Kouwenhoven)

Jefferis Line (Chandler, Nowell, Roberts)

John (ab Ieuan) Line (Button, Gwilym, Thomas)

John (ap Jeffrey) Line (Dafydd, Havard, Owain, Rees)

John (ap Morgan) Line (Kemeys, Thomas)

Jenkin Line (Gruffudd, Llewelyn, Nicholas)

Jolliffe Line (Hoult, Sheppard, Slack, Springer)

Jordan (Robert) Line (Belson, Brasseur, Pleasants)

Jordan (Thomas) Line (Brasseur, Ellyson, Pleasants, Thomas)

Jost (Christoph) Line (Bowers)

Jost (Conrad) Line (Bardt, Barth, Engel, Stammler, Wassermann)

Jung Line (Heimbach)

Kammer Line (Enderli, Loetscher, Witwer)

Keith (Alexander) Line (Ogilvy, Stewart)

Keith (William) Line (Erskine, Gordon, Graham, Troup)

Keller Line (Schatto, Stake)

Kemeys Line (David, Morgan)

Kennedy Line (Gordon, Maxwell, Stewart)

Kleve Line (Bourgogne, Guelders, Julich)

Knoertzer Line (Weigenthall)

Knolles Line (Chichele)

Knopf Line (Effinger, Irion)

Kunz Line (Berger)

Kyne Line (Chichele, Mansel, Pollidore)

Lamont Line (Campbell, MacDonald)

Lang Line (Schaf)

Large Line (Brown, Dungan)

Latham Line (Dungan)

Latsch Line (vor der Hardt)

Lauder Line (Fallow, Home, Landell)

Lazear Line (Linton, Plummer, Ryan, Webb)

Lennox Line (Campbell, Stuart)

Leslie Line (Halyburton, Hay, Seton, Sinclair)

Lewis (Evan of Cardigan) Line (Davies, Harries)

Lewis (Evan of Chester) Line (Babb, David, Prichard)

Lieveling Line (Slecht)

Lindeman Line (Bauer, Springer)

Lindsay (Alexander) Line (Campbell, Dunbar, Ogilvy, Stewart)

Lindsay (James) Line (Herries, Keith)

Linton Line (Boles, Lazear, McFadden, Richards)

Livingston Line (Dundas, Hamilton, Menteith)

Livingstone Line (Moncreiffe, Wemyss)

Llewelyn Line (Llewelyn)

Llywelyn (ap Gwilym) Line (Jenkin, Rhys)

Llywelyn (ap Morgan) Line (Dafydd, Llywelyn)

Llywelyn (ap Phillip) Line (Basset, Howel, Ieuan)

Loetscher Line (Herr, Kammer)

Lovell Line (Douglas, Graham)

Lubbertsen Line (Bergen, Hendrickse)

Lueck Line (Fischbach)

MacDonald (Allan) Line (Macintosh, Stewart)

MacDonald (Donald) Line (Leslie, Sutherland)

MacDonald (John) Line (Bisset, Lamont, O’Neil, O’Neill)

Mackenzie Line (Fraser, Grant, MacAulay, MacDougall, MacLeod, Macintosh, Stewart)

Mackintosh / Macintosh Line (Campbell, Gordon, Graham, Grant, MacDonald, Mackenzie, McQueen, Ogilvy)

MacLeod Line (Mackenzie, Mar)

Madog Line (Gruffudd)

Maelog Line (Chicheley, Daubeny)

Mainwaring Line (Foulshurst, Venables)

Malmberg Line (Andersdotter, Barth, Swanson)

Mansel Line (Fleming, Griffith, Gwilim, Kyne, Penrice, Turberville)

Marcey Line (Gill)

Marcross Line (Basset)

Marshe Line (Hurst)

Martin (James) Line (Bowman, McMurtrie, McMyrtre, Roberts, Smith, Trotter)

Martin (Llewellyn) Line (Abraham, Bowen, Davies, Morgan)

Martin (Richard) Line (Tichborne)

Martin (Thomas) Line (Roberts, Tucker)

Martz Line (Burkhart, Nave, Snider)

Massey Line (Barrier, Boles, Modrell)

Maule Line (Abercromby, Fleming, Gray, Guthrie, Halyburton, Lindsay, Mercer, Rollo)

Maxwell (Herbert) Line (Herries, Kennedy, Stewart)

Maxwell (Robert) Line (Boyd, Denniston, Lindsay)

May Line (Collet)

McClain Line (Brownlee, Gullett)

McCrosky / McCoskery Line (Clark, Faris, Stayman)

McFadden Line (Chapman, Heston, Linton)

McIntire Line (Bailey, Brown, Dick, Speece)

McMurtrie Line (Martin)

McMyrtre Line (Martin)

McQueen / Macqueen Line (Brown, Mackintosh)

Melford Line (Clifford, Need)

Melville Line (Boswell, Scott, Stewart)

Mercer Line (Barclay, Drummond, Maule, Stewart, Wardlaw)

Meyrick Line (Fleming, Harpway, Ieuan, Meurig, Richard, William)

Michell Line (Sidney)

Milner Line (Cary)

Minnes Line (Feddans, Van Voorhees)

Modrell Line (Massey)

Moncreiffe line (Campbell, Dundas, Livingstone, Murray)

Montgomerie Line (Boyd, MacDonald, Stuart)

Monypenny Line (Bethune, Wemyss)

Morgan (ap David) Line (Evan)

Morgan (ap David Powell) Line (David, Jenkin)

Morgan (ap Hugyn) Line (Marchudd)

Morgan (ap Jenkin) Line (Bassrt, Vaughan, Welsh, William)

Morgan (ap John) Line (David, Evan, William)

Morgan (ap Trahaearn) Line (Ieuan)

Mortimer (Edmund) Line (Percy, Plantagenet)

Mosby Line (Binford, Gostlyne, Woodson)

Munford Line (Lawes, Pleasants, Yongs)

Murray Line (Campbell, Colquhoun, Drummond, Graham, Grant, Gray, Keith, Stewart)

Mylin / Meilin / Meili Line (Baer, Bär, Herr, Hochstrasser)

Nash Line (Sloper, Withers)

Naunton Line (Almot, Barney, Brusyard, Doyley)

Nave Line (Martz)

Need Line (Cartlidge, Melford)

Nerbel Line (Barth, Flekkenstein)

Neville Line (Dacre, Percy, Stafford)

Nevyus / Nevius / Neeff Line (Becx, Bleijck, Schenck, Sleght, Van Voorhees)

Newell Line (Fowler)

Nohr Line (Peiffer, Raquet)

Nowell Line (Jefferis, Tatchell

Oberholtzer Line (Steman)

Ogilvy (Alexander of Findlater) Line (Abernethy, Glen, Gordon, Innes, Macintosh, Ramsay, Sinclair)

Ogilvy (David) Line (Glen, Ramsay, Rattray)

Ogilvy (James) Line (Durward, Graham, Kennedy, Lindsay, Sinclair)

Ogilvy (Patrick) Line (Keith, Oliphant)

Oldcastle Line (Pembridge, Whitney)

Oliphant Line (Ogilvy, Stewart, Wardlaw)

Oliver Line (Ackerly, Drake)

op den Graeff Line (Addams, Jansen, Peters, Pletges)

Otterbach Line (Heimbach, Holtzclaw, Stuell)

Owain (ap Gruffudd) Line (Hanmer, Scudamore)

Owain (ap Marchudd) Line (Jeffrey, Llywelyn, Morgan, Rhys)

Owen Line (Rhys)

Packwood Line (Harbour, Hough)

Painter / Bender Line (Boles, Bullinger, Erb)

Parish Line (Foster)

Parker Line (Barber)

Parsons Line (Hellings, Tarr)

Payne Line (Assiter, Drury)

Percy Line (Clifford, Mortimer, Neville)

Perkins Line (Hussey, Read)

Peverell Line (Courtenay, Hungerford)

Pfister Line (Irion)

Phillips Line (Arrants)

Plantagenet Line (Castile, Holand)

Pleasants Line (Cary, Jordan, Larcombe, Marshall, Munford, Putrasse)

Pletges Line (Gobels, op den Graeff)

Plummer Line (Lazear, Smith, Wilson, Yate)

Polhemius Line (Sebring, Van der Werven)

Powell Line (Richard, Woolaston)

Price (John) Line (David, Evan, Jevan)

Price (Thomas) Line (Arrants, Lee)

Prichard Line (Basset, Evan, Fleming, Gamage, Howel, Lewis, Llewelyn, Meyrick)

Prickett Line (Fleming, Howel, Springer)

Pride Line (Roberts)

Princehouse / Printzhausen Line (Speece)

Probst Line (Fischer, Fosselman, Hoffman)

Rapelje Line (Baudoin, Bergen, Trico)

Raquet Line (Didenhoff, Greiner, Nohr)

Rattray Line (Abercrombie, Kennedy, Ogilvy, Stewart)

Ree Line (Hollingsworth)

Reimbach Line (Bauer)

Rhys (ap Hywel) Line (Hywel, Richard)

Rhys (ap Robert) Line (Hywel, Llywelyn)

Richard Line (Einon)

Ries Line (Crafft, Wassermann)

Rimpler Line (Hieronymus, Hoffman)

Ripley Line (Ballow, Thomas)

Roadshaw / Readshaw / Readshawe Line (Barber)

Roberts (John) Line (Jefferis, Withers)

Roberts (Morris) Line (Burnett, Martin, Pride, Step)

Roberts (Thomas) Line (Martin)

Robinson (Melvin) Line (Bowman, Gullett, Hickey)

Robinson (Rossiter) Line (Conklin, Cunningham, Rossiter, Speece, Withers)

Rodburgh Line (Gamage)

Rollo / Rollock Line (Gray, Maule)

Ros Line (Clifford, Stafford)

Rose Line (Calder, Cheyne, Macintosh, Sutherland)

Rossiter Line (Addams, Flexney, Robinson)

Roth Line (Groh)

Rudolph Line (Heilman, Ströhlin)

Rung Line (Barth, Greiner, Heisdorfer)

Russell (Richard) Line (Brown, Hickey)

Russell (Solomon) Line (Bowers, Brown, Ermentraudt)

Russell (Thomas) Line (Ludlow, Whitney)

Ruthven Line (Buttergask, Cranstoun, Drummond, Halyburton, Levington)

Rythe Line (Cowdray, Tichborne)

Saint John (Edward) Line (Aton, Bromflete)

Saint John (John) Line (Beauchamp, Bradshagh, Clifford, Pavley)

Saltzgeber Line (Friedli)

Savage Line (Brereton, Daniers, Stanley, Swynnerton, Trafford)

Schaeffer Line (Dorn, Weiland)

Schaff Line (Christmann, Greiner, Lang)

Schäffer Line (Fosselmann, Vigelius)

Schantzenbach Line (Alterrriedt, Grim, Weber)

Schatto Line (Keller)

Schenck Line (Nevius, Van Kouwenhoven)

Schneider Line (Heimbach)

Scholt Line (Busch)

Scott Line (Melville)

Scrymgeour Line (Campbell, Carnegie, Cunninghame, Halyburton, Lyon, Maxwell, Ogilvy, Oliphant)

Scudamore Line (Ewias, Owain, Weston)

Sebring / Seuberinge Line (Bodine, Polhemius)

Sel Line (auf dem Berge, Busch)

Seton Line (Fleming, Sinclair, Stuart)

Shaw Line (Edmonstone)

Sheppard Line (Jolliffe, Watts)

Shircliffe / Shircliff / Shercliffe / Sheircliffe Line (Ford, Hoult, Spinke, Thompson, Wheeler)

Sibbald Line (Douglas)

Sidney Line (Gainsford, Michell)

Sinclair (Henry) Line (Douglas, Halyburton, Hepburn, Leslie, Ogilvy)

Sinclair (John) Line (Ogilvy)

Sinclair (William of Hermantoun) Line (Seton)

Sinnott Line (Colfer, Hickey, Nevill)

Slack / Sleght / Slecht Line (Barentsdr, Bergen, Bos, Downing, Ellis, Jolliffe, Lieveling, Nevyus)

Sloper (Thomas) Line (Bailly, Withers)

Sloper (William) Line (Nash)

Slye Line (Gerard, Wheeler)

Smith (Jeremiah) Line (Arrants, Dungan, Foster)

Smith (John) Line (Chandler, Wels)

Smith (Richard) Line (Dameron)

Smith (William) Line (Withers)

Snowe Line (Gerard)

Snyder / Snider / Schneider Line (Bowers, Harbour, Martz, Wagner)

Speece / Spies Line (Bowers, Henry, McIntire, Princehouse, Robinson, Stayman)

Springer Line (Hudson, Jolliffe, Prickett)

Stafford Line (Beauchamp, Neville)

Stake / Steeg / Steg Line (Barber, Degen, Haeppert, Keller, Stayman)

Stammler Line (Dietz, Jost)

Stanley (Thomas) Line (Goushill, Harrington, Lathom, Savage)

Stanley (William) Line (Arderne, Bromley, Gerard, Houghton, Savage)

Stayman / Steman Line (Baer, McCrosky, Oberholtzer, Speece, Stake)

Steiger Line (Kuntze)

Step Line (Roberts)

Stephens Line (Yate)

Stevenson Line (Brown)

Stewart (David) Line (Graham, Lindsay)

Stewart (James) Line (Rattray)

Stewart (John of Atholl) Line (Beaufort, Campbell, Grant, MacDougal, Rattray, Sinclair)

Stewart (John of Blackhall) Line (Campbell)

Stewart (John of Lorn) Line (Campbell, MacDougall, Stewart)

Stewart (King James) Line (Beaufort, Drummond, Guelders, Hamilton)

Stewart (Robert of Albany) Line (Graham, Stewart)

Stewart (Robert of Durisdeer) Line (MacDougall, Mercer)

Stewart (Walter) Line (Campbell, Edmonstone, Graham, Lennox)

St. Lo Line (Clyvedon, Botreaux)

Strangeways Line (Gerard, Orells)

Ströhlin Line (Rudolph)

Stuart Line (Campbell, Lennox, Montgomerie, Seton)

Stuell Line (Beer, Otterbach)

Sutherland (Alexander) Line (Calder, MacDonald)

Sutherland (William) Line (Cheyne, Chisholm, Mureff / Murray, Rose)

Swanson Line (Andreasdotter, Malmberg)

Swift Line (Wing)

Swynnerton Line (Beke, Savage)

Tarbell Line (Conklin)

Tarrant Line (Sloper, Withers)

Taylor (John) Line (Brown)

Taylor (Robert) Line (Wood)

Taylor (Thomas) Line (Cary)

Teichmann Line (Conradi)

Thomas (ap Evan) Line (Cradoc, Fleming, Thomas, William)

Thomas (ap Gronwy) Line (Chicheley, Hywel, Ieuan)

Thomas (ap Gruffudd) Line (Dafydd, Havard, Roger)

Thomas (ap Gwilim) Line (Evan, Gwilim)

Thomas (ap Gwilim David) Line (Gwilim, Lleisan)

Thomas (ap Hywel) Line (Gwilym, Ieuan, Havard, Weston)

Thomas (ap Llywelyn) Line (Ieuan, Llywelyn)

Thomas (ap Morgan) Line (Basset, Halyn, Jevan, John, Kemeys)

Thomas (Charles) Line (Dameron, Harbour, Jordan, Ripley)

Thompson Line (Sheircliffe)

Tichborne Line (Martin, Rythe, Wandesford, White, Yate)

Tidmarsh Line (Barber)

Thurlow Line (Woolcott)

Tilley Line (Howland, Hurst)

Tomey Line (Auliffe, Cunningham)

Touchet / Tuchet Line (Holland, Mortimer, Whitney)

Townsend Line (Coles, Dickinson)

Trafford Line (Ashton, Gerard, Savage, Venables)

Trice Line (Eley, Gullett)

Trico Line (Rapelje, Sauvagie)

Trotter Line (Gibbs, Martin)

Turberville Line (Mansel)

Valoniis Line (Wardlaw)

Van Fisphe Line (vor der Hardt)

Van Kouwenhoven Line (Cool, Jacobsdochter, Schenck)

Van Voorhees Line (Minnes, Nevyus, Roelofs)

Vaughan (Hopkin) Line (Dennis)

Vaughan (Roger) Line (Devereux, Gam, Jenkin)

Vaughan (Thomas) Line (Vaughan)

Vaughan (William) Line (Evan, Evans, Gam, Havard, Vaughan, Whitney)

Veatch Line (Ellis, Gakerlin)

Venables (Hugh) Line (Cotton, Mainwaring)

Venables (William) Line (Trafford)

Vernon Line (Foulshurst, Hulse)

Vigelius Line (Schäffer)

Von Arkel Line (Egmond, Jülich)

Vor der Hardt (Hen) Line (Sel, van Fisphe, vor der Hardt)

Vor der Hardt (Henchen) Line (vor der Hardt)

Wagner Line (Bidel, Goeller, Groh)

Walcott / Wolcott / Woolcott Line (Brownlee, Emerson, Thurlow)

Wandesford Line (Colville, Musters, Tichborne)

Wardlaw Line (Lauder, Mercer, Oliphant, Valoniis)

Warren Line (Youngs)

Wassermann Line (Jost, Ries)

Watts Line (Blaugdone, Sheppard)

Weaver Line (Dungan, Holbrook)

Weber Line (Schantzenbach, Weigenthall)

Weigenthall Line (Knoertzer, Weber)

Wells Line (Yate)

Welsh Line (Philip)

Wemyss Line (Erskine, Livingstone)

Weston Line (Hywel, Scudamore)

Wheeler Line (Shircliff, Slye)

White Line (Gainsford, Hungerford, Tichborne)

Whitney Line (Cromwell, Oldcastle, Russell, Touchet, Vaughan)

William (ap John) Line (Howel)

William (ap Rhys) Line (Hopkin, Jevan, Owen)

William (ap Thomas) Line (Richard)

Wilson Line (Plummer)

Wing Line (Bachiler, Dungan, Swift)

Withers Line (Collet, Davis, Holllingsworth, Nash, Roberts, Robinson, Sloper, Smith, Tarrant, Wollaston)

Witmer Line (Baer, Eby, Engle)

Wood Line (Hussey, Taylor)

Woodson Line (Ferris, Mosby, Winston)

Woolaston Line (Powell, Withers)

Wright Line (Barber, Cartlidge)

Yate Line (Plummer, Stephens, Tichborne, Wells)

Yerian / Jurian / Irion Line (Bollin, Bowers, Conradi, Dorn, Fosselman, Haug, Knopf, Pfister)

Youngs Line (Conklyne, Warren)

 

30. Three Valentines: The Snyder / Snider Family of Germany, Rockingham County, Virginia, and Champaign County, Ohio

Some years ago while researching the Snyder / Snider family of Champaign county, Ohio — my mother’s ancestors — I ran across an unusual signature. It was on my ancestor’s court declaration concerning his service in the War of 1812. Following his brief testimony, he signed:

snider-v-signature

That stylized, unnecessary extension of the V in Valentine — sorry, I have to say it — stole my heart. It particularly did so because its author was 77 years old at the time. My ancestor was apparently a lifelong romantic!

By the 1870s when he made his declaration, the association of the heart glyph with Valentines was already well established. Accompanying is a picture of a Valentine card from that very decade. While the expression of sentiment seems a little tone deaf by modern standards, the association between love and the heart is clear.

wounded_heart_vinegar_valentine_1870s

The man with the heart-melting signature was John Valentine Snider, Jr. He was born in 1793 in Rockingham county, Virginia, the son of immigrant John Valentine Snider, Sr. — our second of three Valentines. Exactly when across the generations the heart glyph became associated with the given name will probably never be known. What has recently been discovered, however, is a third Valentine, far back in the family in Germany.

His discovery is actually the important part of the tale in this edition of The Genealogist’s Craft. For a number of decades, my father and I were stymied in identifying the exact German origin of Valentine, Sr. But then in 1992 an extraordinary revelation came by way of the mailbox. A new correspondent residing in Ohio sent along photocopies of two handwritten pages of birth information.  He wrote that they had been referred to in a 1904 letter as having been copied from “a family Bible since lost.”

The document contained the family record of the father of Valentine, Sr., as well as that of Valentine himself. It named the children of both generations and gave their birthdates. For the most part the transcription appeared to be literal, though judging from instances of fractured English grammar it had likely been translated from German by someone not fluent in that language.

An unusual feature of the entries is that they gave zodiac signs for each of the children, but in a manner that was unfamiliar. For example, the entries for two of the children of Valentine, Sr., born in the two very different months of January and October, both gave “Steer” as their sign. It now seems clear that in accordance with a practice previously noticed in Pennsylvania German custom [1], the zodiac of the birth records was lunar based, with signs changing roughly daily instead of monthly. Thus children with birth dates in separated months could indeed share the same sign.

A final notable feature of the document was that it stated that the “book” (i.e., Bible) had been purchased in Rissmuhl, Germany, in 1730. That was likely Rißmühl, a locality about a half mile NW of Stallwang, itself about 40 km east of Regensburg, Bavaria. Was this perhaps the geographic origin of the family? At the time the question could not be answered.

When I published the Snyder-Harbour Ancestry in 2005, I saw no reason not to give credence to this record, and accordingly provided an account of the father and siblings of Valentine, Sr., as well as what biographical information was available. I also photographically reproduced the two-page document in the book itself, because as I wrote in the text, the record was in danger of being lost to posterity. Annoyingly, however, when I searched the on-line databases of the time, corroboration of the birth records in the handwritten document continued to elude me.

In the decade since the book’s publication, however, databases have become more and more complete as extracts have continued to be made. It was with pleasure, then, that just before I first published the Omnibus Ancestry, I rechecked and finally found the children’s birth records, neatly laid out in extracts from German church records. The third Valentine was revealed, the grandfather of John Valentine Snider, Sr.

And Rißmühl? Most good genealogical stories leave a loose end or two for further investigation. That is certainly true in this case, for Rißmühl is almost 300 miles from the now-known German home of the Sniders. What on earth was one of my ancestors doing so far from home in 1730? Research will continue — my Valentine to the lives of our ancestors.

For more on the Snyder/Snider family, please see The Omnibus Ancestry, available for preview and download through Lulu.com at this link.  The Snyder-Harbour Ancestry is also still available there.


Notes:

[1] Wertkin, G.C. (2004). Encyclopedia of American Folk Art. NY: Routledge.


Picture attributions: Public domain

22. New Release! The Omnibus Ancestry, 2nd Edition

Omnibus graphic.final

Now available for download: The Omnibus Ancestry: 589 Documented American and European Lines, by David B. Boles. As indicated on the Lulu website:

366 pages. This recently released 2nd edition extends many ancestral lines, adds about 50 new lines, and corrects errors in the 1st edition.  The book covers 589 family lines, principally but not limited to the colonial and post-colonial United States, England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland, Germany, France, and the Netherlands. The great majority of the ancestral lines in the previous works on the Author’s Spotlight page are covered in handy, condensed, corrected, and referenced form. Extensive notes are used to explain the logic behind conclusions and to provide suggestions for further research.

Covering such a large geographical area and span of time (from the present back to about 1350), I anticipate that the work will be of interest to a wide range of genealogical researchers with American or European ancestors. Using a condensed format, paired with extensive notes, I have endeavored to provide new, diverse, and unique information and insights not only to casual family readers, but to genealogical novices and experts alike. Over 60 years of family history findings are represented, the product of two generations of research using a large array of genealogical techniques.

An index of the families covered appears below.

Why a 2nd Edition?

There are many, many changes to the material covered in the 1st edition. The approximately 50 new lines are the proverbial tip of the iceberg. On publication of the 1st edition, I undertook a year-long line-by-line review, rechecking accuracy, and scouring a variety of new sources for information to extend the lines or add to them. Many extensions and corrections were made. In a handful of cases old lines were dropped when they were found to be unsupported or contradicted by sound evidence. The resulting 2nd edition is more complete, more accurate, and (I think) more interesting than ever.

What is Meant by “Documented Lines”?

Every genealogist has experienced the frustration of dealing with unsourced or poorly-sourced family lines. Many prove to be mutually contradictory and rife with error. Instead I have provided a reference or references for virtually every statement in the book. If nothing else, I hope that the extensive referencing alone makes the book a worthwhile download, as it should save the reader a great deal of time and effort in locating sources.

In the very few cases where I believe a statement is correct but have no reference, I acknowledge “Reference unknown” or the equivalent. These are always limited to minor biographical details; unknown sources are never accepted as support for intergenerational connections.

Will You Agree With Every Conclusion?

Of course I’d like to think so, but I know that experienced researchers like to reach their own conclusions after a balanced weighing of the evidence. I certainly do. That’s why I have endeavored to provide explanations for every point I think might provoke controversy. These are again contained in the notes following an ancestral line. As a reader you of course have complete freedom to accept or reject the arguments.

I’d like to carry this one step further by asking that you contact me if you want to discuss an issue. No one has all the information possessed by researchers at large, and I would like to learn what you have found as well. Contact information is given in the introduction to the book, or you can post a comment to this blog.

Why a 1350 Cutoff?

Like the 1st edition, the 2nd edition cuts off beyond about the year 1350. I adopted this date because it seems to provide the best balance between coverage of essential material and bloat. The cutoff allows for the inclusion of about 20 ancestral generations.

However, that does not mean the ancestry ends there. Far from it. Most known lines of that antiquity are either royal or noble in nature, or trace to royal or noble ancestry within a few additional generations. Fortunately these generations have been widely published and need not be repeated in my book. Instead, in the notes I provide easy-to-obtain references should you want to trace further.

In effect, the cutoff has allowed me to focus my expertise on solving the problems that are the hardest — but also the most rewarding.

A Final Word

In 2010 I found myself the author or coauthor of 14 books of an ancestral or genealogical nature, tracing hundreds of family lines. How could I make this work accessible to a broad audience?

The answer was a single volume, the first edition of the Omnibus, condensing all of the previous work into an easy-to-follow line-by-line format. A considerable amount of new material was added, to the extent that an estimated 40% of the ancestral lines did not appear in the previous publications.

I consider The Omnibus Ancestry the capstone of my genealogical career. The present edition, like the first, is intended to inform you of “the state of the art” while providing a blueprint for future research. Each of the 589 lines is an open invitation to build further. I hope some of you will join me in the labor. But even if you don’t, please enjoy its fruits.

The Omnibus Ancestry may be ordered from Lulu. You can access it either at the book page itself, or through the Author Spotlight page, which shows all of my Lulu genealogical publications.  Just click on one of the two links for a preview and more!

The Lines

Abercrombie Line

Abercromby Line

Abernethy Line

Abraham Line

Ackerly Line

Addams Line

Almot Line

Altrate Line

Amyas Line

Andreas Line

Andrews Line

Arrants Line

Ashton Line

Assiter Line

Atwood Line

Auliffe Line

Austin Line

Babb Line

Bachiler Line

Baer Line

Bailey Line

Ballow Line

Banister Line

Barber (James) Line

Barber (William) Line

Barnes Line

Barrier Line

Barth Line

Bartram Line

Basset (Thomas of Miscin) Line

Basset (Thomas of Saint Hilari) Line

Bateman Line

Beaton (David) Line

Beaton (John) Line

Beauchamp Line

Beaufort Line

Beaumont Line

Becx Line

Beer Line

Belson Line

Bergen Line

Bidel Line

Binford Line

Blaugdone Line

Bleijck Line

Bodine Line

Boles Line

Bollin Line

Borthwick Line

Bos Line

Boswell Line

Boteler Line

Botreaux Line

Bourgogne Line

Bowers Line

Bowman Line

Boyd Line

Bradshagh Line

Brasseur Line

Brereton Line

Brock Line

Bromflete Line

Brown (James) Line

Brown (Richard) Line

Brown (Thomas) Line

Brownlee Line

Brusyard Line

Buchanan Line

Burckhart Line

Burnett Line

Busch Line

Buster Line

Button Line

Cadwalader Line

Calder Line

Campbell (Archibald of Argyll) Line

Campbell (Archibald of Auchinbreck) Line

Campbell (Archibald of Cawdor) Line

Campbell (Duncan) Line

Carnegie Line

Cartlidge Line

Cary Line

Chandler Line

Chapman Line

Chappell Line

Cheyne Line

Chichele Line

Chicheley Line

Chisholm Line

Clark Line

Clench Line

Clifford Line

Coles Line

Colfer Line

Collet Line

Colville Line

Conklin Line

Conradi Line

Cool Line

Coons Line

Cowdray Line

Cradoc Line

Cranstoun Line

Crew Line

Crichton Line

Crocheron Line

Cunningham Line

Dacre Line

Dafydd (ap Hywel) Line

Dafydd (ap Rees) Line

Dameron Line

David (ap Hopkin) Line

David (ap Llewelyn) Line

David (ap Morgan) Line

David (ap Walhin) Line

David (John) Line

Davis (Nathaniel) Line

Davis (William) Line

Dennis Line

Denniston Line

Dick Line

Dickison Line

Dietz Line

Domville Line

Dorn Line

Douglas (Archibald) Line

Douglas (George) Line

Douglas (Henry) Line

Douglas (James) Line

Douglas (William of Drumlanrig) Line

Douglas (William of Nithsdale) Line

Downing Line

Drake Line

Dresler Line

Drummond Line

Drury Line

Duddingston Line

Dunbar Line

Dundas Line

Dungan (Jeremiah) Line

Dungan (William) Line

Ecklin Line

Edmonstone Line

Eger Line

Ellis (Ellis) Line

Ellis (Jesse) Line

Ellyson Line

Emerson Line

Erb Line

Ermentraudt Line

Erskine Line

Evan (ap Evan) Line

Evan (ap Griffith) Line

Evan (ap Llewelyn) Line

Evan (ap Madoc) Line

Evan (Gitto) Line

Evans Line

Everingham Line

Faris Line

Ferris Line

Finch Line

Fischbach Line

Fischer Line

Fishback Line

FitzHugh Line

Fleming (Christopher) Line

Flender (Henchen) Line

Flender (Henrich) Line

Flexney Line

Forbes Line

Ford Line

Fosselman Line

Foster Line

Foulshurst Line

Fowler Line

Friedli Line

Friesenhagen Line

Gainsford Line

Gaisenhofer Line

Gam Line

Gamage Line

Gattley Line

Gerard Line

Gill Line

Glen Line

Glencarnie Line

Gobels Line

Goeller Line

Goode Line

Gordon (Adam) Line

Gordon (Alexander of Huntly) Line

Gordon (Alexander of Lochinvar) Line

Gosnold Line

Goushill Line

Graham (David) Line

Graham (Patrick) Line

Graham (William) Line

Grant Line

Gray Line

Greiner (Jacob) Line

Greiner (Nicolaus) Line

Grey Line

Griffith Line

Grim Line

Groh Line

Gruffudd Line

Guelders Line

Gullett Line

Guthrie Line

Gwilim Line

Gwilym (ap Jenkin) Line

Gwilym (ap Philip) Line

Hager Line

Hallyn Line

Halyburton (James) Line

Halyburton (Patrick) Line

Hamilton Line

Hanback Line

Harbour Line

Harpway Line

Harrington Line

Haug Line

Havard (Jenkin) Line

Havard (William) Line

Hawxhurst Line

Hay (Thomas) Line

Hay (William) Line

Hayden Line

Heimbach (Johannes) Line

Heimbach (Philipp) Line

Heisdorfer Line

Hellings Line

Hendrickse Line

Henry Line

Hepburn Line

Herbert Line

Herr Line

Herries Line

Hickey Line

Hieronymus Line

Hobson Line

Hochstrasser Line

Hoffman Line

Holbrook Line

Holland (Albrecht) Line

Holland (Edmund) Line

Hollingsworth Line

Holman Line

Holtzclaw Line

Home Line

Houghton Line

Hoult Line

Housh Line

Howel (ab Evan) Line

Howel (ap David) Line

Howland Line

Hoyt Line

Hulse Line

Hungerford Line

Hurst Line

Hussey Line

Hywel Line

Ieuan (ap Gruffudd) Line

Ieuan (ap Gwilym) Line

Ieuan (ap Jenkin) Line

Innes Line

Jacobsdochter Line

Jefferis Line

John (ab Ieuan) Line

John (ap Jeffrey) Line

John (ap Morgan) Line

Jenkin Line

Jolliffe Line

Jordan (Robert) Line

Jordan (Thomas) Line

Jost (Christoph) Line

Jost (Conrad) Line

Jung Line

Kammer Line

Keith (Alexander) Line

Keith (William) Line

Keller Line

Kemeys Line

Kennedy Line

Kleve Line

Knoertzer Line

Knolles Line

Knopf Line

Kunz Line

Kyne Line

Lamont Line

Lang Line

Large Line

Latham Line

Latsch Line

Lauder Line

Lazear Line

Lennox Line

Leslie Line

Lewis (Evan of Cardigan) Line

Lewis (Evan of Chester) Line

Lieveling Line

Lindeman Line

Lindsay (Alexander) Line

Lindsay (James) Line

Linton Line

Livingston Line

Livingstone Line

Llewelyn Line

Llywelyn (ap Gwilym) Line

Llywelyn (ap Morgan) Line

Llywelyn (ap Phillip) Line

Loetscher Line

Lovell Line

Lubbertsen Line

Lueck Line

MacDonald (Allan) Line

MacDonald (Donald) Line

MacDonald (John) Line

Mackenzie Line

Mackintosh Line

MacLeod Line

Madog Line

Maelog Line

Mainwaring Line

Malmberg Line

Mansel Line

Marcey Line

Marcross Line

Marshe Line

Martin (James) Line

Martin (Llewellyn) Line

Martin (Richard) Line

Martin (Thomas) Line

Martz Line

Massey Line

Maule Line

Maxwell (Herbert) Line

Maxwell (Robert) Line

May Line

McClain Line

McCrosky Line

McFadden Line

McIntire Line

McMurtrie Line

McMyrtre Line

McQueen Line

Melford Line

Melville Line

Mercer Line

Meyrick Line

Michell Line

Milner Line

Minnes Line

Modrell Line

Moncreiffe line

Montgomerie Line

Monypenny Line

Morgan (ap David) Line

Morgan (ap David Powell) Line

Morgan (ap Hugyn) Line

Morgan (ap Jenkin) Line

Morgan (ap John) Line

Morgan (ap Trahaearn) Line

Mortimer (Edmund) Line

Mosby Line

Munford Line

Murray Line

Mylin Line

Nash Line

Naunton Line

Nave Line

Need Line

Nerbel Line

Neville Line

Nevyus Line

Newell Line

Nohr Line

Nowell Line

Oberholtzer Line

Ogilvy (Alexander of Findlater) Line

Ogilvy (David) Line

Ogilvy (James) Line

Ogilvy (Patrick) Line

Oldcastle Line

Oliphant Line

Oliver Line

op den Graeff Line

Otterbach Line

Owain (ap Gruffudd) Line

Owain (ap Marchudd) Line

Owen Line

Packwood Line

Painter Line

Parish Line

Parker Line

Parsons Line

Payne Line

Percy Line

Perkins Line

Peverell Line

Pfister Line

Phillips Line

Plantagenet Line

Pleasants Line

Pletges Line

Plummer Line

Polhemius Line

Powell Line

Price (John) Line

Price (Thomas) Line

Prichard Line

Prickett Line

Pride Line

Princehouse Line

Probst Line

Rapelje Line

Raquet Line

Rattray Line

Ree Line

Reimbach Line

Rhys (ap Hywel) Line

Rhys (ap Robert) Line

Richard Line

Ries Line

Rimpler Line

Ripley Line

Roadshaw Line

Roberts (John) Line

Roberts (Morris) Line

Roberts (Thomas) Line

Robinson (Melvin) Line

Robinson (Rossiter) Line

Rodburgh Line

Rollo Line

Ros Line

Rose Line

Rossiter Line

Roth Line

Rudolph Line

Rung Line

Russell (Richard) Line

Russell (Solomon) Line

Russell (Thomas) Line

Ruthven Line

Rythe Line

Saint John (Edward) Line

Saint John (John) Line

Saltzgeber Line

Savage Line

Schaeffer Line

Schaff Line

Schäffer Line

Schantzenbach Line

Schatto Line

Schenck Line

Schneider Line

Scholt Line

Scott Line

Scrymgeour Line

Scudamore Line

Sebring Line

Sel Line

Seton Line

Shaw Line

Sheppard Line

Shircliffe Line

Sibbald Line

Sidney Line

Sinclair (Henry) Line

Sinclair (John) Line

Sinclair (William of Hermantoun) Line

Sinnott Line

Slack Line

Sloper (Thomas) Line

Sloper (William) Line

Slye Line

Smith (Jeremiah) Line

Smith (John) Line

Smith (Richard) Line

Smith (William) Line

Snowe Line

Snyder Line

Speece Line

Springer Line

Stafford Line

Stake Line

Stammler Line

Stanley (Thomas) Line

Stanley (William) Line

Stayman Line

Steiger Line

Step Line

Stephens Line

Stevenson Line

Stewart (David) Line

Stewart (James) Line

Stewart (John of Atholl) Line

Stewart (John of Blackhall) Line

Stewart (John of Lorn) Line

Stewart (King James) Line

Stewart (Robert of Albany) Line

Stewart (Robert of Durisdeer) Line

Stewart (Walter) Line

St. Lo Line

Strangeways Line

Ströhlin Line

Stuart Line

Stuell Line

Sutherland (Alexander) Line

Sutherland (William) Line

Swanson Line

Swift Line

Swynnerton Line

Tarbell Line

Tarrant Line

Taylor (John) Line

Taylor (Robert) Line

Taylor (Thomas) Line

Teichmann Line

Thomas (ap Evan) Line

Thomas (ap Gronwy) Line

Thomas (ap Gruffudd) Line

Thomas (ap Gwilim) Line

Thomas (ap Gwilim David) Line

Thomas (ap Hywel) Line

Thomas (ap Llywelyn) Line

Thomas (ap Morgan) Line

Thomas (Charles) Line

Thompson Line

Tichborne Line

Tidmarsh Line

Thurlow Line

Tilley Line

Tomey Line

Touchet Line

Townsend Line

Trafford Line

Trice Line

Trico Line

Trotter Line

Turberville Line

Valoniis Line

Van Fisphe Line

Van Kouwenhoven Line

Van Voorhees Line

Vaughan (Hopkin) Line

Vaughan (Roger) Line

Vaughan (Thomas) Line

Vaughan (William) Line

Veatch Line

Venables (Hugh) Line

Venables (William) Line

Vernon Line

Vigelius Line

Von Arkel Line

Vor der Hardt (Hen) Line

Vor der Hardt (Henchen) Line

Wagner Line

Walcott Line

Wandesford Line

Wardlaw Line

Warren Line

Wassermann Line

Watts Line

Weaver Line

Weber Line

Weigenthall Line

Wells Line

Welsh Line

Wemyss Line

Weston Line

Wheeler Line

White Line

Whitney Line

William (ap John) Line

William (ap Rhys) Line

William (ap Thomas) Line

Wilson Line

Wing Line

Withers Line

Witmer Line

Wood Line

Woodson Line

Woolaston Line

Wright Line

Yate Line

Yerian Line

Youngs Line

 

 

 

21. The Power of Convergence, Part 2: O Brother, Where Art Thou?

In a previous blog entry, 17. The Power of Convergence, Part 1: Francis Drake, I described the use of the web to find a reference imperfectly cited to me about 45 years previously. Entering three names said to appear in the record, I quickly located the reference using Google Search, and found that it was available in free, downloadable form. That in turn allowed me to dispell the myth that my ancestor Francis Drake, of New Hampshire and New Jersey, was originally of West Meath, Ireland.

Thus the convergent power of the web, something unimagined 45 years ago, provided information that significantly impacted on a genealogical conclusion. Each of the three names entered alone produced thousands of hits — to be specific, about 695,000 for Francis Drake, 63,400 for Thomas Temple, and 231,000 for Richard Saunders — but when entered simultaneously, convergence was found on one unique source that matched information I had been given decades earlier. Using it, I was able to draw a negative conclusion about the origin of my ancestor .

But what about more positive instances? Can convergence be used to support, not just dispel relationships? In my experience the answer is yes — especially if you start with a known “starter” relationship.

“Starter” Relationships

A “starter” relationship is between two people, known to be of the same family, each connected to a number of possibly associated records. Looking for overlap among the possible associations is what allows for convergence. For example if a possible origin (among several) of one person matches a possible origin (among several) of a related person, there is a fair chance that the match indicates their common origin.

Brotherly love

In my experience the starter relationship is usually between brothers. This is probably due to the fact that brothers usually have the same surname, while married sisters, or a married sister and a brother, typically do not. Therefore brothers tend to be known to a greater extent than other sibling pairs.

To illustrate the power of convergence in such situations, I briefly present two case studies involving brothers.

The Slack Brothers

In tracing my Slack ancestors, attention quickly settled on two contemporaries who settled in Mason county, Kentucky, about the same time prior to 1800. One, John Slack, seemed most likely to be our ancestor, but for a time we could not rule out the other, Jacob Slack. I wrote about this problem in my very first blog entry (1. John Slack of Mason County, Kentucky: Poverty and a Glittering Past), and there is no point in rehashing it here. For present purposes it is enough to state that we believed the two men to be brothers. How could this fact be used to determine their origin?

Census records in this case proved to provide the initial point of convergence. By examining the 1790 census nationwide, using the web resource Ancestry.com, it was found that a John Slack and a Jacob Slack both appeared as heads of household in the 1790 census of Harford county, Maryland. With research attention turned to Maryland, I quickly located an 1816 deed by which Jacob Slack of Mason county, Kentucky, sold a share of land in Harford county. There could be no doubt: The intermediate place of origin of the two brothers was Harford county.

But where were they from before that? Web searches turned up the next point of convergence. John and Jacob Sleght, sons of Hendrick Sleght, were baptized respectively in May 1746 and July 1757 in Bucks county, Pennsylvania, dates initially found on the web but later confirmed in printed church records. A number of other circumstances matched as well — among them, evidence from Kentucky and Maryland that John was significantly older than Jacob, and a gravestone in Kentucky giving an age for Jacob that was closely consistent with the baptismal record.

This discovery made it possible not just to identify the father of the brothers, but to add multiple ancestral lines tracing back in some cases many generations. It was a major windfall discovery.

While there were a number of facts possibly associated with John, and a number possibly associated with Jacob, it was the convergence of information across both that allowed the discovery of their origin. To fully appreciate the importance of that, consider what would have happened had I known only of John Slack. I would have found multiple possible places of origin in census and tax records, and would have been at a loss when attempting to identify which pertained. It was the known “starter” relationship of John to Jacob that solved the problem.

The Altrate (Altred) Brothers

My ancestor Christopher Altrate (Altred; Alteriedt) arrived at Philadelphia in 1749, and was in Frederick county, Virginia, by 1760. He resided in Winchester, and there became one of the founders of the town’s Evangelical Lutheran church. In his will, made in 1765, he referred to property that would come to him in Youghstousen, Germany. Christopher had an apparent brother named Michael Altred, who had been fined in 1761 in Frederick county for being absent from a muster, and who stood security for Christopher’s widow when she administered his estate.

The name of the German location proved problematic, because there is no Youghtstousen in Germany. A query directed to a genealogy forum elicited the same response from two native German speakers: In their opinion the location was probably Jagsthausen, in Württemberg.

Convergence in this case came from the ongoing indexing of German birth and christening records by the LDS Church. A record for Christoph Alteried showed a birth date of 16 Apr 1724, as recorded in the Evangelisch church, Ruchsen, Baden. That of his brother Georg Michael Alteriedt occurred on 5 Oct 1725, recorded in the same church. Both were sons of Johann Friederich Alteried by his wife Maria Agnes. Then came the best part, the discovery that Jagsthausen is only 6.5 road miles from Ruchsen [1]. The deal was sealed.

Again, the case illustrates the use of web-based information to provide convergence between brothers in a known starter relationship, this time using the online FamilySearch facility of the LDS Church (familysearch.org). Discovering the parents made it possible to trace a number of further generations in multiple family lines.

Other Brothers

A number of other examples could be described. They include the Barber family of Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, and co. York, England; the Bowers (Bauer) family of Berks county, Pennsylvania, Frederick co, Virginia, and Baden, Germany; and the Mosby family of Charles City county, Virginia, and co. Norfolk, England.   For full descriptions and references, and the ancestries of these families as well as those of the Slack and Altrate families, see The Omnibus Ancestry, available for download at Lulu.com.

In all of these cases, it was knowledge that two men were brothers that allowed the convergent power of the web to identify their common origin.

Caveat

Keep in mind that merely finding the names of two brothers in earlier records at the same location is often insufficient to establish that the records concern those brothers. To take an extreme example, starting with the names of two brothers named John and James Smith would likely turn up hundreds of possible convergences, only one of which may be the proverbial needle in the haystack.

It’s only in the instance of rare names (first and/or last) that names alone might lead one to assume identity. The Altrates/Altreds are possibly a case in point, as the surname is rare, especially when appearing with the given names Christopher and Michael.

Nevertheless in all the cases cited, additional information was available that supported identity. The Altrates/Altreds were thought to have a property interest in Jagsthausen, only a few miles from the convergent location of Ruchsen. The Slack brothers, while having a moderately uncommon surname, were chiefly identified as the sons of Hendrick through their age spread and a close correspondence in birth and christening dates, along with other considerations that were described in the original blog entry.

Thus when applying a starter relationship to look for convergence on a common location, all known facts should be exploited to either confirm or disconfirm the convergence. In this regard the enterprise is similar to other applications of the genealogist’s craft.


Note:

[1] The sharp-eyed reader will have noticed that Ruchsen is in Baden while Jagsthausen is in Württemberg. Until 1846 Ruchsen was an exclave of Baden, being completely surrounded by Württemberg. In that year territories were exchanged that gave it land access to the rest of Baden. However, a border remained between Ruchsen and Jagsthausen (information retrieved from https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruchsen, 2016).


Picture attribution: Owner Jen’s Art & Soul, Brotherly Love, retrieved from https://www.flickr.com/photos/frazzledjen/177002473. Used under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license.

 

18. Witches, Wizards, Ghosts, and Things That Go Bump in the Night

Superstition and magic have no doubt played a role in society ever since there was society. By spanning many countries and several centuries, the genealogist’s craft occasionally uncovers interesting anecdotes that appeal to the modern sense of the offbeat, quirky, and downright spooky. What better time to stir them up from the bottom of a bubbling pot, than Halloween?

Witches

The most elaborate witch story in my background is that of the McQueen witch, who cast her spells around the end of the 17th century. John McQueen of Pollochaig, co. Inverness, Scotland, was a famous sportsman who went out one day hoping to kill a deer. After a long way he came across one, which went down when shot. But when John scoured the area for his prize, it couldn’t be found. He returned home empty-handed, and that night told the story at his fireside.

A_Visit_to_the_Witch_1882

Certain he had killed his quarry, he returned the next morning to the spot. There he met an old woman, who said to him, “Black John son of Dougall, take the lead out of my foot which you put into it yesterday.” This he did, and when finished he asked her for a wish or blessing. She thought a moment, and replied, “Your best day will be your worst day, and your worst day will be your best day.”

Years later this prophecy became true, when John’s son was captured at the Battle of Preston and was subsequently transported overseas. It was John’s worst day for the future of his sept in Scotland.  But it was his best day for the future of his many descendants in America [1, 2].

Other ancestral lines had their witch anecdotes as well, of a much deadlier shade. In 16th century Germany, one of my direct ancestors through the Foster family was Gertrud Stuell, wife of Hans Stuell, a householder near Siegen. In 1590 she was accused of bewitching livestock, found guilty, and burned [1, 3].

Nor were family members absent from the other end of the legal system. My wife’s many-great-uncle John Emerson was one of the accusers in the infamous Salem witch trials in Massachusetts in 1692. That year his own uncle, a minister of the same name, contributed to the witch hysteria by claiming to have witnessed a shooting of three men, who then rose up and fired a silver gun with a type of bullet never seen before. Rev. Emerson wrote:

The Devil and his Agents were the cause of all the Molestations. The Ambushments of the Good People of Glocester were caused by Daemons in the Shape of Armed Indians and Frenchmen. [1, 4]

My favorite witch story, however, had a very different ending from the horrifying ones of Siegen and Salem. My ancestor Jeremiah Collet, Sr., from whom I descend through the Withers family, was a fishmonger of Devizes, co. Wiltshire, England, who immigrated to Pennsylvania. A few months later, in Feb 1683/4, he served on a jury in Chester (now Delaware) county, and heard the case of Margaret Matson. Matson was accused of practicing witchcraft, specifically of killing livestock by bewitching it and appearing in spectral form. After hearing the case, Jeremiah and his fellow jurors returned their verdict. The accused was found guilty not of witchcraft, but of “having the common fame of a witch” — for which she merely had to post bond for good behavior!

The case is considered historically significant in reflecting hostility in the Quaker colony toward witchcraft accusations, in sharp contrast to attitudes that would be revealed in Salem a decade later. There is even a legend, possibly apocryphal, that when dismissing the charge of witchcraft against Matson, William Penn affirmed her right to ride a broomstick [1, 5, 6].

Wizards

The wizards in my family were Thomas Ashton (ca 1394?- aft 1445) and Edmund Trafford (ca 1393-1457/8), ancestors through both the Snyder-Harbour and Ellis families. These co. Lancaster gentlemen claimed to have discovered an elixir that restored youth and changed base metals into gold and silver. In my opinion their major claim to wizardry, however, is that in 1446 they managed to persuade the King to override an earlier law prohibiting alchemy, and to grant them a patent to practice it [1, 7, 8]. Otherwise I presume their deaths, if not their lack of riches, tended to discredit them.

Ghosts

The legend of the ghost of Phillip Babb (ca 1602?-1670/1), my ancestor through the Withers-Davis families, was known to author Nathaniel Hawthorne. Phillip, a fishing master on Hogg Island in the Isles of Shoals off the coast of what is now Maine, was held to have been a crew member for the notorious pirate Capt. Kidd [1, 9]. In 1852, Hawthorne reported:

Old Babb, the ghost, has a ring around his neck, and is supposed either to have been hung or to have had his throat cut, but he steadfastly declines telling the mode of his death. There is a luminous appearance about him as he walks, and his face is pale and very dreadful. [10]

As with all good stories of the supernatural, the legend became more elaborate as time passed. In 1873, a Shoals historian named Celia Thayer reported:

There is a superstition among the islanders that Philip Babb… still haunts Appledore [another Shoals island]; and no consideration would induce the more timid to walk alone after dark over a certain shingly beach on that island, at the top of the cove bearing Babb’s name — for there the uneasy spirit is oftenest seen. He is supposed to have been so desperately wicked when alive that there is no rest for him in his grave. His dress is a coarse, striped butcher’s frock, with a leather belt, to which is attached a sheath containing a ghostly knife, sharp and glittering, which it is his delight to brandish in the face of terrified humanity. One of the Shoalers is perfectly certain that he and Babb have met, and he shudders with real horror, recalling the meeting. This is his story. It was after sunset (of course), and he was coming around the corner of a work-shop, when he saw a wild and dreadful figure advancing toward him; his first thought was that someone wished to make him the victim of a practical joke, and he called out something to the effect that he “wasn’t afraid”; but the thing came near with a ghastly face and hollow eyes, and assuming a fiendish expression, took out the knife from its belt and flourished it in the face of the Shoaler … [10]

In 1929, Oscar Laighton went still further. In his account, also set on Appledore Island, Babb had dug for treasure – presumed to be Capt. Kidd’s – making a deep pit 30 feet wide. An iron chest being discovered at the bottom, Babb and a friend broke it open, upon which smoke and red hot horseshoes flew out. From his death until the Coast Guard built a structure on the spot, Babb’s ghost persisted near the cove’s head — to which no islander would come near [10].

Things That Go Bump in the Night

I end with an anecdote concerning Elizabeth Addams Bull Rossiter (1713/4-1810), my ancestor through the Speece-Robinson familes. In a letter soon after her death, a granddaughter wrote:

. . . our respected grandmother left this world in April; her illness was very short and she was quite sensible until the last few minutes. The day before she died she mentioned to her son and daughter that she had distinctly heard three little taps on the head of her bed, and on that hour the next day she would depart, as her father had heard the same, and she believed it a token for her to be prepared. At the hour mentioned she expired. [11]

Presumably my esteemed many-great-grandmother bequeathed her ancestral death taps to a child other than the daughter who was my ancestor. In my branch of the family they have not been heard this many a generation. But with October 31st fast approaching, one never knows. Happy Halloween!

Notes

[1] Boles, D.B. (2016). The Omnibus Ancestry. Available through Lulu.

[2] The story is traditional, but I am endebted to Donna Hechler Porter (http://theflyingshuttle.blogspot.com/2014_05_01_archive.html) for suggesting which day was the worst and the best, a point left vague in the traditional telling. It’s about as perfect an ending to the story as one could wish.

[3] Boles, H.W., & Boles, D.B. (1990). Foster Ancestors: Some Europeans, Immigrants, Colonists, and Pioneers. Decorah, Iowa: The Anundsen Publishing Co. Available through Lulu.

[4] Information retrieved from http://suite101.com/article/ebenezer-babson-and-the-1692-gloucester-massachusetts-mystery-a328784 (2015).

[5] Boles, D.B., & Boles, H.W. (1998). Withers-Davis Ancestry. Decorah, Iowa: The Anundsen Publishing Co. Available through Lulu.

[6] Information retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_Matson (2015).

[7] Boles, D.B. (2005). Snyder-Harbour Ancestry. Available through Lulu.

[8] Boles, H.W., & Boles, D.B. (1994). Ellis Ancestors: Some Immigrants, Colonists, and Pioneers. Kalamazoo, Mich: Private print. Available through Lulu.

[9] Which however was certainly untrue, in that Kidd’s piracy did not occur until a generation after Phillip’s death (Withers-Davis Ancestry, op. cit., available through Lulu).

[10] Rutledge, L.V. (1965). The Isles of Shoals in Lore and Legend. Barre, Mass: Barre Publishers.

[11] Boles, D.B., & Boles, H.W. (1997). Speece-Robinson Ancestry. Ozark, Mo: Dogwood Printing. Available through Lulu.

Picture attribution:

“A Visit to the Witch” by Edward Frederick Brewtnall (1882). Public domain.