40. The Scottish Background of the Southampton Burnet Family

The Burnet descent is fully described and referenced in the book The Omnibus Ancestry: 619 Documented American and European Lines.  It is available for download through Lulu.

The patriarch of the Burnet family of Southampton, Long Island, NY, was Thomas Burnet, first known as a settler who arrived at Scout’s Bay, western Long Island, in 1640/1, and who died in Southampton in 1684 [1].  My wife descends from him by way of her Gullett ancestors.  Thomas’ great-great-great-granddaughter Jane Burnett (1820/1-1883) married in 1849, as her second husband, Joshua Gullett (1825-1863), in Washington county, Indiana [2].

For a number of years it has been claimed that Thomas of Southampton was the son of Thomas Burnet, a physician in Braintree, co. Essex, England, and grandson of Alexander Burnet, 11th laird of Leys, co. Kincardine, Scotland, a connection explicitly stated in E. A. Bailey’s Crannog to Castle (2000) [3].  The laird, whose wife was Katherine Arbuthnot, has extensive traceable ancestry that includes a descent from King Robert III of Scotland [4].

crathes
Crathes Castle, co. Aberdeen, Scotland, home of the Burnetts of Leys.  Land granted 1323, castle begun 1553, completed 1596 [5].

Grounds for Skepticism

Much as I would like to trace a royal line of descent on behalf of my wife, I have been skeptical of the stated connection between the Southampton and Leys Burnetts.  There are three major grounds for skepticism, as follows.

1. The reference given in Crannog to Castle for the Southampton to Leys connection was the “personal research notes” of a private individual. In absence of a description of the evidence, such notes cannot be assumed authoritative.

2. There is little similarity between the names of the children of Thomas of Southampton (John, Lot, Hester, Joel, Aaron, Miriam, Priscilla, Daniel, Lois, Mordecai, and Matthias) and those of the children of Thomas of Braintree (Thomas, Alexander, Frances), his wife (Jane), or his siblings (Alexander, Robert, Gilbert, Duncan, John, Janet, Margaret, and Elizabeth) [2]. It seems an important observation that the children’s names in the Southampton family appear to be solidly English, while several names in the Braintree family are commonly Scottish. But in any case, the lack of resemblance between the two families is a reason to doubt that one closely derived from the other.

3. There is also some question whether the chronology is consistent. The Braintree man did have a son named Thomas, who was b. 1612 [2]. However, the second child named in the Southampton man’s will, Lot, was m. 1675, and the third child, Hester, married a man b. 1649 [2].  These dates suggest that the first child, John (for whom no firm birth or marriage dates are otherwise known) was b. ca 1648? [6].  In turn that is suggestive that his father Thomas was born later than 1612, possibly closer to 1622.

While none of these points is definitive, together they provide ground for skepticism about the Southampton-to-Leys connection, at least as it has been described.

Support from Y-DNA Testing

A fly in the skepticism ointment, however, is that Y-DNA testing does in fact support a connection between the Southampton and Leys families.  Y-DNA comparisons have been made between two descendants of Thomas of Southampton on the one hand, and on the other hand, a descendant of Alexander Burnet, 11th laird of Leys (b. ca 1540?, d. 1578) and a descendant of Alexander Burnet, 9th laird of Leys (b. 1500, d. 1574).  The former match the latter in either 32/37 or 62/67 markers depending on the pairing [2].

These results appear definitive, establishing that there is in fact a genetic connection between Thomas of Southampton and the Burnett lairds of Leys.  But is the connection through the 11th laird?  The results indicate, on average across the outcomes, a 50% probability of convergence in 15.5 generations [7]. At 31 years a generation [7] and assuming an average birthyear of 1970 across the testees, that would indicate a common ancestor b. ca 1490? — i.e., more likely in the person of the 9th than the 11th laird.  However, the error margin is very high, and the results are consistent with either a much earlier or a much later convergence, including one with the 11th laird. Hopefully estimates will narrow as more tests are received.

Others of the Name

A final consideration is that there was no shortage of persons named Thomas Burnett in British records of the early 17th century.  Any of several could have been the American immigrant, instead of the son of Thomas of Braintree.  Thus those of the name born 1617-1627 in England include Thomas Burnett, chr. 1620 in Stepney, London, Eng, son of John and Elizabeth; Thomas Burnett, chr. and d. 1621 in Lincoln, co. Lincoln, son of John; Thomas Burnet, chr. 1622 in Fincham St. Martin with St. Michael, co. Norfolk, Eng, son of John; Thoms. Burnet, chr. 1623 in Otley, co. York, son of Thoms.; and Thomas Burnet, chr. 1625 in Adstock, co. Buckingham, son of Richard [2].  This list, of course, is only as complete as the church records from which it was compiled, and there were others of somewhat different spellings of the surname.

Earlier, there were the intriguing christenings of Mathias Burnet (1594) and Joell Burnet (1599), both sons of Thomae (Thomas) Burnet, in Holbeach, co. Lincoln [2].  There was also a Danyell Burnett m. 1631 in Holbeach, whose baptism was not recorded there [8], but who could have been another son of Thomas.  Mathias, Joel, and Daniel are three of the unusual names in the Southampton family, possibly suggesting a relationship.  However Tho. [Thomas], the apparent brother of Mathias and Joell (and possibly of Danyell), was chr. 1609 [2], raising the same chronological issue as the Leys connection.

Conclusions

That the ancestry of Thomas Burnet of Southampton, Long Island, ultimately traces to the Burnetts of Leys in Scotland appears indisputable, given the Y-DNA evidence.  However, there remain grounds for skepticism over whether the relationship was as close as a descent from the 11th laird.  If the line instead went through one of the other English families of record, such as that of Thomas of Holbeach, co. Lincoln, there could have been any number of connecting generations before convergence with the Leys family.

Unfortunately, for now that keeps me from claiming a royal descent for my wife [9].  But perhaps it offers the prospect of one, following some future application of the genealogist’s craft.


Notes:

[1] He was not, as frequently asserted, previously of Lynn, Massachusetts.  See The Omnibus Ancestry for a discussion.

[2] Boles, D.B. (2017). The Omnibus Ancestry: 619 Documented American and European Lines, 3rd ed.  Lulu e-books.

[3] Leys is near Tarland, co. Kincardine. Although it was the original seat of the family, in the 16th century the Burnetts built Crathes Castle in co. Aberdeen as their home.  Crathes Castle is about 23 road miles ESE of Leys.  There was an earlier castle at Leys, located on a crannog (an artificial island) that today is almost inaccessibly surrounded by marsh.   Its foundations were destroyed during a 19th-century excavation.  It was reputedly the home of the Burnetts from 1323 to 1550 (information retrieved from https://canmore.org.uk/site/36684/loch-of-leys, 2019).

[4] Information retrieved from http://www.thepeerage.com/p19019.htm#i190189 & linked pages (2019).

[5] Information retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crathes_Castle (2018).

[6] Crannog to Castle stated that he was b. 1645, but there appears to be no basis for the assertion in primary records.  My estimate is based on the suppositions that Hester was about 4 years younger than her husband and was b. ca 1653?; Lot was about 25 years old at the time of marriage and was b. ca 1650?; and John was about 2 years older than Lot and was b. ca 1648?.

[7] Calculator at https://clandonalddnaproject.org/index.php/tmrca-calculator (2017).

[8] FamilySearch, LDS church (2019).

[9] If the ancestry of my wife, along with that of the Southampton-descending Y-DNA testees, converges with the Leys line anytime beginning with the 9th laird’s grandfather or later, they would be descendants of King Robert III.  The 9th laird’s grandfather, also named Alexander Burnett, had his children by his second wife Marjory Forbes.  Her ancestor James, 2nd Lord Forbes, was the son of a granddaughter of Robert III (www.thepeerage.com, op. cit.).


Picture Credit

Modification of “Crathes Castle (XVIe si\xe8cle), Banchory, Aberdeenshire, Ecosse, Grande-Bretagne, Royaume-Uni” (https://ccsearch.creativecommons.org/photos/d8c14647-6663-4132-9def-84f4e02142b7) by byb64 (en voyage jusqu’au 26) (https://www.flickr.com/photos/50879678@N03), licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0).

Advertisements

38. Token Ancestors: Coinage by the Youngs, Munford, and Samm Families

This holiday season, as you shop for gifts or dinner trimmings, spare a moment to think about the money you are spending. Not the amount, but the kind. Paper money is a relatively modern innnovation in the western world, being rooted in banknotes issued in the mid-1600s. But the coins you carry in your pocket or purse are in most ways similar to coins as they have existed throughout the ages, all the way down from the 6th century B.C. Varying in denomination, they allow for small change to be made as the leftover from larger purchases.

In one important way, however, our coins vary considerably from earlier ones. Early coins were minted under the theory that their face value should equal the value of their metal content. Thus they were typically made of gold or silver. For example, in early medieval England, 240 silver pennies could be minted from a pound of silver — thereby giving rise to the unit we call the English pound sterling [2].   In contrast, most modern coins are minted with face values greatly exceeding the value of their metal content. Today in the U.S., the “melt value” is only 2 cents for a dime, 4 cents for a quarter, and 8 cents for a half dollar [1].

We have, in other words, switched from a theory of content value to a theory of token value when it comes to coins. This switch occurred surprisingly recently, with 1964 being the last year that the U.S. struck silver dimes, quarters, and half dollars.

The late switch is surprising for how long it took to come about, because the theory of content value had repeatedly proved problematic when it came to ensuring a supply of coins. Over a span of centuries, governments were frequently forced to debase their coinage to relieve shortages. Debasement typically involved reducing the silver content of smaller-denomination coins. The reasons for most of the shortages are controversial (e.g., compare [3] with [10]), but one factor was that as fluctuations in prices occurred, at some point the value of a coin’s metal content would exceed its face value. At that point coins would be melted down, disappearing from circulation [3].

A 17th Century Shortage

One of the historical shortages affords genealogical connections. By the mid-17th century a persistent shortage of small denomination coins had developed in England. This had been a long time in coming. As early as the time of Queen Elizabeth, who reigned 1558-1603, patterns had been drawn up for the issue of copper coins but nothing had come of it [4]. Coin shortages became particularly acute during the English Civil War (1643-1651), when minting ceased [11].

By 1648, shortages had become so severe that merchants took matters into their own hands and began issuing coin-like tokens of their own, a practice that continued in most places until 1672. The tokens were given as change, and were often honored locally in other establishments, at least over an adjoining street or two. In theory they could be exchanged for official royal coinage, although the extent to which that actually occurred is unclear [4].

Ancestral Involvement

Three of our known ancestors or near-ancestors were involved in the issuing of trade tokens, as they were called, each valued at a farthing (a quarter of a penny). In Norwich, co. Norfolk, England, on the eastern side of the country, ancestor Anne Youngs (d. 1681), a grocer, issued a token under her married name Anne Munford. It showed her name as “ANN MVNFORD” with The Grocer’s Arms on one side, and on the reverse, “IN NORWICH – A.M. [her initials]”. A photograph appears at https://norfolktokenproject.wordpress.com/portfolio/williamson-174. Anne is a direct ancestor through the Bowers, Thomas, Jordan, and Pleasants families [5].

Also in Norwich, Anne’s son George Munford, who had been admitted a freeman of the city in 1653, issued his own grocer’s token. On one side it showed “GEORGE MYNFORD” with a merchant’s mark, and on the other, “OF NORWICH 1657” with The Grocer’s Arms [5]. A photograph appears at https://norfolktokenproject.wordpress.com/portfolio/williamson-175.

Further west, John Samm (d. aft 1695) issued a token in Clifton, co. Bedford, in 1664. It showed his wife’s initial as “H”, and displayed the Drapers’ Arms [4], indicating he was a draper (i.e., a cloth or clothing merchant). John is a direct ancestor through the Bowers, Stayman, and Stake families [5]. At least for the moment, a photograph appears at https://www.copperbark.com/products/bedfordshire-28-clifton-john-samm-1664.

Although these three ancestors and near-ancestors were either grocers or drapers, trade tokens were not limited to those occupations. Williamson [4] listed nearly a hundred livelihoods represented by tokens.

trade token Thomas Wood
Example of a farthing trade token, issued by Thomas Wood, a vintner of Oxford, in 1652. Made of copper alloy, it weighs less than a gram and is about 1.5 cm in diameter. Wood also ran a tennis court, and a tennis racquet is depicted.

Aftermath

Even after trade tokens began to be issued, the English government dithered. In 1649, the Council of State recorded, “The business of farthing tokens is to be considered to-morrow” — an interesting phrasing given that it implied abandonment of the theory of content value. In 1650, the Council declared, “Farthings ought to be issued.” A year after that, as if to stengthen their resolve, a report was presented to the Council giving reasons, which were summarized by a later writer [4]:

The report commenced by stating that money is the public means to set a price upon all things between man and man, and experience hath sufficiently proved in all ages that small money is so needful to the poorer sort that all nations have endeavoured to have it. It continues to recommend small pieces as ministering of frugality, whereupon men can have a farthing’s worth and are not constrained to buy more of anything than they stand in need of, their feeding being from hand to mouth; it recommends it on the ground of charity, saying that many are deprived of alms for want of farthings and half-farthings, for many would give a farthing who are not disposed to give a penny or twopence, or to lose time in staying to change money whereby they may contract a noisome smell or the disease of the poor. [4]

Further discussion took place in 1652, but it was not until 1672 that a royal proclamation was finally issued for the minting of copper farthings and halfpence. At the same time the use of private tokens was outlawed, which was obeyed with two notable exceptions where usage continued for a few more years (i.e., the city of Chester, and Ireland). When those practices ended, the time of the 17th-century trade token had passed.

Today it is possible to collect trade tokens. A “good fine” example of the John Samm farthing came up for auction in 2012, with an expected sale price of £40-50 [6]. A “very fine” example at the aforementioned http://www.copperbark.com site is currently priced at £100. A George Munford 1657 farthing came up for auction in 2013 [7], and an Anne Munford farthing sold in 2015 [8].

A Final Comment

I’ll end with one last comment about those coins in your pocket. As I wrote at the head of this article, most modern coins have face values greatly exceeding the value of their metal content. The penny is a notable exception. Its metal is worth 8 tenths of a cent, only a small difference in value [1]. After accounting for all expenses, it already costs more than one cent to manufacture a new penny. Ongoing debates over the coin’s future and its possible elimination are eerily reminiscent of the protracted deliberations of the Council of State over the farthing nearly 400 years ago, right down to the possible effect on charities [9].

Oh, and about those farthings? Britain hasn’t seen a new one since 1956, and they are no longer legal tender.


Descent from the ancestors mentioned in this posting, and what is known of their own forebears, is detailed in The Omnibus Ancestry (available for download at Lulu). Full references are given there.


Notes:

[1] Information retrieved from http://www.coinflation.com/coins/basemetal_calc.php (2017).

[2] Information retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pound_sterling#Anglo-Saxon (2017).

[3] Sargent, T.J., & Velde, F.R. (2002). The Big Problem of Small Change. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

[4] Williamson, G.C. (1889). Trade Tokens Issued in the Seventeenth Century. London: Elliot Stock.

[5] Boles, D.B. (2017). The Omnibus Ancestry: 619 Documented American and European Lines. Available for download through Lulu.

[6] Information retrieved from https://www.dnw.co.uk/media/auction_catalogues/Tokens%2011%20Apr%2012.pdf (2017).

[7] Information retrieved from https://www.dnw.co.uk/media/auction_catalogues/Tokens%202%20Oct%2013.pdf (2017).

[8] Information retrieved from http://rarecoinsandtokens.co.uk/index.php?main_page=product_info&cPath=166&products_id=856 (2017).

[9] Information retrieved from https://www.thespruce.com/the-penny-debate-768872 (2017).

[10] Information retrieved from http://www.lse.ac.uk/Economic-History/Assets/Documents/WorkingPapers/Economic-History/2008/WP107.pdf (2017).

[11] Information retrieved from http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~fordingtondorset/Files2/Dorchestertradetoken.html (2017).


Picture credit: Modification of “17th century trade token of Thomas Wood, 1652“, by the Portable Antiquities Scheme, photographer Chris Edbury, used under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic license. The Portable Antiquities Scheme (PAS) is a voluntary programme run by the United Kingdom government to record the increasing numbers of small finds of archaeological interest found by members of the public. The scheme started in 1997 and now covers most of England and Wales. Finds are published at https://finds.org.uk.

ANCESTRAL LINES AND INTERMARRIAGES in The Omnibus Ancestry, 3rd Edition

ANCESTRAL LINES AND INTERMARRIAGES in The Omnibus Ancestry: 619 Documented American and European Lines. This is the 3rd edition of The Omnibus Ancestry — and likely to be the last for some time, as I have moved on to another writing project.

This book may be previewed at Lulu (http://www.lulu.com/shop/david-boles/the-omnibus-ancestry-619-documented-american-and-european-lines/ebook/product-23158054.html).

THE OMNIBUS ANCESTRY.3rd.Lulu.cover.c

Only the surnames of DIRECT ancestors are shown, with DIRECTLY ANCESTRAL intermarriages in alphabetical order inside parentheses. For instance, the “Bowers Line (Albert, Boles, Jost, Lindeman, Reimbach, Russell, Speece, Yerian)” entry reflects the marriage of Esther L. Bowers with Harold W. Boles, with the other marriages taking place in earlier generations. All of those are family surnames, and are in Esther’s direct ancestral line.

Keep in mind that these families themselves may have had intermarriages. For instance, looking up the Yerian name produces the entry “Yerian/Jurian/Irion Line (Bollin, Bowers, Conradi, Dorn, Fosselman, Haug, Knopf, Pfister)”. In turn each of these may have had intermarriages, and so on. The Omnibus Ancestry covers a web of interconnected families.

However note that in some instances, especially in historical Welsh families, surnames were not used. In those instances the intermarriages are more reflective of personal names than family names. For example, the “Owen Line (Rhys)” entry reflects the marriage of Wenllian ferch Owen, with William ap Rhys (i.e., Wenllian daughter of Owen, with William son of Rhys).

Entries in red reflect additions to the intermarriages index since the one for the 2nd edition.

Abercrombie Line (Rattray)

Abercromby Line (Maule)

Abernethy Line (Borthwick, Ogilvy, Stewart)

Abraham Line (Martin)

Ackerly Line (Oliver)

Addams Line (op den Graeff, Rossiter)

Almot Line (Clenche, Naunton)

Altrate (Altruth, Alteried, Alterriedt) Line (Dick, Ecklin, Schantzenbach)

Amyas Line (Clenche)

Andreas Line (Larsdotter, Nilsson)

Andrews Line (Button)

Arbogast (Lindemann)

Arrants / Arnst Line (Phillips, Price, Smith)

Ashton Line (Byron, Trafford)

Assiter Line (Payne)

Atwood Line (Coons, Fishback)

Auliffe Line (Tomey)

Austin Line (Fleming)

Babb Line (Davis, Hussey, Lewis)

Bachiler / Bachelor Line (Bate, Wing)

Baer / Bare Line (Mylin, Stayman, Witmer)

Bailey Line (McIntire)

Ballow Line (Birkell, Goode, Park/Parker, Read, Ripley)

Banister Line (Chappell)

Barber (James) Line (Readshaw, Stainburne, Stake, Tidmarsh, Wright)

Barber (William) Line (Burnet, Parker)

Barnes Line (Gullett)

Barrier / Berger Line (Kunz, Massey, Reynolds)

Barth / Bard / Bart Line (Boles, Ebert, Hickey, Jost, Malmberg, Nerbel, Rung)

Bartram Line (Cartlidge)

Basset (Thomas of Miscin) Line (Evan, Evans, Fleming, Griffith, Marcross, Morgan, Thomas)

Basset (Thomas of Saint Hilari) Line (Caerdydd, Llywelyn)

Bateman Line (Ellis)

Bauer (Neubecker)

Beaton / Bethune (David) Line (Boswell, Duddingston, Hamilton, Stewart, Stirling)

Beaton / Bethune (John) Line (Boswell, Graham, Monypenny)

Beauchamp Line (St. John, Stourton)

Beaufort Line (Holand, Roet, Stewart)

Beaumont Line (Botreaux, Everingham, Vere)

Becker Line (Messerschmitz, Seegmueller)

Becx Line (Neeff, Diepenbroucks)

Beer Line (Stuell)

Belson Line (Jordan)

Bergen Line (Lubbertsen, Rapelje, Sleght)

Beringer Line (Müller)

Bidel Line (Bruckenfelder, Wagner)

Binford Line (Chappell, Ellyson, Mosby)

Blaugdone / Blackden Line (Brock, Watts)

Bleijck Line (Jans, Nevius)

Bodine Line (Brown, Crocheron, Finch, Sebring)

Boles / Bole Line (Barth, Bowers, Dickison, Foster, Linton, Massey, Painter)

Bollin Line (Irion)

Borthwick Line (Abernethy, Hay)

Bos Line (Leenderts, Maartens, Slecht)

Boswell Line (Bethune, Melville)

Boteler Line (Gerard, Plumpton)

Botreaux Line (Daubeny, Hungerford, Beaumont, St. Lo)

Bourgogne Line (Dampierre, Holland, Kleve)

Bowers / Bauer Line (Albert, Boles, Jost, Lindeman, Reimbach, Russell, Snyder, Speece, Yerian)

Bowman Line (Martin, Robinson)

Boyd Line (Gifford, Gordon, Maxwell, Montgomerie)

Bradshagh Line (St. John)

Brasseur Line (Ellis)

Brereton Line (Savage, Venables)

Brock Line (Blaugdone)

Bromflete Line (Clifford, FitzHugh, Saint John)

Brown (James) Line (Bodine, Drury, Langham, Reynolds, Russell)

Brown (Richard) Line (Davis/Davies, McQueen, Russell, Stevenson, Taylor)

Brown (Thomas) Line (Large, McIntire)

Brownlee Line (McClain, Walcott, Wilson)

Brusyard Line (Naunton)

Buchanan Line (Gray)

Burckhart Line (Hahlman)

Burnett Line (Barber, Gullett, Roberts)

Busch Line (Busch, Scholt)

Buster Line (Foster, Woods)

Button Line (Andrews, Hallyn, Hywel, Ieuan, John)

Cadwalader Line (Ellis, Hugh)

Calder Line (Campbell, Rose, Sutherland)

Campbell (Archibald of Argyll) Line (Campbell, Gordon, Hamilton, Macintosh, Somerville, Stewart, Stuart)

Campbell (Archibald of Auchinbreck) Line (Campbell, Lamont, Scrymgeour, Stewart)

Campbell (Archibald of Cawdor) Line (Calder, Campbell, Grant, Stuart)

Campbell (Duncan) Line (Moncreiffe, Murray, Stewart)

Carnegie Line (Guthrie, Kinnaird, Lindsay, Scrymgeour, Strachan, Vaus)

Cartlidge Line (Bartram, Need, Swan, Swifte, Wright)

Cary Line (Goodale, Hobson, Milner, Pleasants, Taylor)

Chandler Line (Benger, Downham, Jefferis, Smith, Spratt)

Chapman Line (Gill, McFadden)

Chappell Line (Banister, Binford)

Cheyne Line (Rose)

Chichele Line (Barret, Kene, Knolles)

Chicheley Line (Dennis, Gronwy, Maelog)

Chisholm Line (Bisset, Halyburton, Sutherland)

Christ Line (Segmüller)

Clark Line (McCrosky)

Clench / Clenche Line (Almot, Amyas, Dameron)

Clifford Line (Beauchamp, Bromflete, Dacre, Melford, Percy, Ros, Saint John)

Coles Line (Hawxhurst, Townsend)

Colfer Line (Power, Sinnott)

Collet Line (May, Stile, Withers)

Colville Line (Arcy, Wandesford)

Conklin / Conklyn / Conklyn / Concklyne Line (Allseabrook, Robinson, Tarbell, Williams, Youngs)

Conradi Line (Irion, Teichmann)

Cool Line (Van Kouwenhoven)

Coons / Kuntze Line (Atwood, Foster, Hanback, Schuster, Steiger)

Cowdray Line (Rythe)

Cradoc Line (Gwyn, Perrot)

Cranstoun Line (Ruthven)

Crew Line (Ellyson, Gattley)

Crichton Line (Seton)

Crocheron Line (Bodine)

Cunningham Line (Robinson, Tomey)

Dacre Line (Clifford, Neville)

Dafydd (ap Hywel) Line (Hywel, Rhys)

Dafydd (ap Rees) Line (Havard, John, Madog)

Dameron Line (Clench, Gosnold, Smith, Thomas)

David (ap Hopkin) Line (Howel)

David (ap Llewelyn) Line (Gamage)

David (ap Morgan) Line (Gwyn, Morgan, Philip, William)

David (ap Walhin) Line (Price)

David (John) Line (Lewis)

Davis (Nathaniel) Line (Babb, Lewis, Martin, Withers)

Davis (William) Line (Hobson)

Dennis Line (Bere, Gamage, Vaughan)

Denniston Line (Maxwell)

Dick Line (Altrate, McIntire, Neubecker)

Dickison / Dickason / Dickinson Line (Boles, Fowler, Howland, Townsend)

Dietz Line (Stammler)

Domville Line (Hulse)

Dorn Line (Schaeffer, Yerian)

Douglas (Archibald) Line (Graham, Moray, Stewart)

Douglas (George) Line (Graham, Hay, Sibbald, Stewart)

Douglas (Henry) Line (Lindsay, Lovell)

Douglas (James) Line (Halyburton)

Douglas (William of Drumlanrig) Line (Innes, Maxwell, Murray)

Douglas (William of Nithsdale) Line (Sinclair, Stewart)

Downing Line (Ellis, Slack)

Drake Line (Dungan, Oliver)

Dresler Line (Friesenhagen)

Drummond Line (Campbell, Graham, Lindsay, Murray, Ruthven, Sinclair)

Drury Line (Brown, Hayden, Payne)

Duddingston Line (Beaton)

Dunbar Line (Lindsay, Seton)

Dundas Line (Douglas, Moncreiffe, Stewart)

Dungan (Jeremiah) Line (Drake, Hellings, Latham, Smith, Weaver)

Dungan (William) Line (Large, Weaver, Wing)

Durnbläser Line (Wolfer)

Ecklin Line (Alterriedt)

Edmonstone Line (Graham, Shaw, Stewart)

Eger / Ege Line (Friesenhagen)

Ellis (Ellis) Line (Bateman, Cadwalader, Downing, Morgan)

Ellis (Jesse) Line (Brasseur, Foster, Holman, Slack, Veatch)

Ellyson Line (Binford, Crew, Gerard, Hamilton, Jordan, Spence)

Emerson Line (Brewster, Crabbe, Wolcott)

Erb Line (Painter)

Ermentraudt / Armentrout Line (Friedli, Hain, Russell)

Erskine Line (Douglas, Keith, Lindsay)

Evan (ap Evan) Line (Basset, Thomas)

Evan (ap Griffith) Line (David, Griffith)

Evan (ap Llewelyn) Line (Vaughan)

Evan (ap Madoc) Line (David)

Evan (Gitto) Line (Richard)

Evans Line (Basset, Evan, Morgan, Price, Rees, Thomas, Vaughan)

Evered Line (Pleasants, Sellars)

Everingham Line (Beaumont)

Faris Line (McCrosky)

Fearon Line (Robinson)

Ferris Line (Woodson)

Finch Line (Bodine)

Fischbach Line (Heimbach, Lueck)

Fischer Line (Probst)

Fishback Line (Atwood, Hager, Heimbach, Holtzclaw)

FitzHugh Line (Bromflete, Grey, Lescrope)

Fleming (Christopher) Line (Austin, Herbert, Mansel, Meyrick, Thomas)

Flender (Henchen) Line (Busch, Holtzclau, Latsch)

Flender (Henrich) Line (Busch, Holtzklau)

Forbes Line (Douglas, Grant, Keith, Kennedy, Seton, Stewart)

Ford Line (Shercliffe)

Fosselman Line (Probst, Schäffer, Yerian)

Foster Line (Boles, Buster, Coons, Ellis, Parish, Smith)

Foulshurst Line (Gerard, Mainwaring, Vernon)

Fowler Line (Dickinson, Hoyt, Newell)

Friedli Line (Ermentraudt, Saltzgeber)

Friesenhagen Line (Dresler, Eger, Hager)

Gainsford Line (Sidney, White)

Gaisenhofer Line (Goeller)

Gam Line (Gwilim, Ieuan, Vaughan)

Gamage Line (David, Dennis, Evan, Hugh, Rodburgh)

Gattley Line (Crew)

Gerard Line (Boteler, Foulshurst, Slye, Snowe, Stanley, Strangeways, Trafford)

Gill Line (Chapman, Marcey)

Glen Line (Erskine, Ogilvy)

Glencarnie Line (Grant)

Gobels Line (Pletges)

Goeller Line (Gaisenhofer, Greiner, Wagner)

Goode Line (Ballow, Bennett)

Gordon (Adam) Line (Keith, Seton)

Gordon / Seton (Alexander of Huntly) Line (Campbell, Crichton, Fleming, Gordon, Stewart)

Gordon (Alexander of Lochinvar) Line (Boyd, Kennedy, Mackintosh)

Gosnold Line (Dameron, Kebell)

Goushill Line (FitzAlan, Stanley)

Graham (David) Line (Beaton, Douglas, Graham, Halyburton, Lovell, Mackintosh, Ogilvy, Scott)

Graham (Patrick) Line (Douglas, Stewart)

Graham (William) Line (Douglas, Drummond, Erskine, Keith, Murray)

Grant Line (Forbes, Glencarnie, Mackintosh, Murray, Ogilvy, Stewart)

Graver Line (Readshawe)

Gray Line (Forbes, Mortimer, Rollo, Wemyss)

Greiner (Jacob) Line (Goeller, Raquet, Schaff, Scheid)

Greiner (Nicolaus) Line (Golar)

Grey Line (FitzHugh, St. Quintin)

Griffith Line (Gruffudd, Jenkin, Mansel)

Grim Line (Schantzenbach)

Groh Line (Roth, Wagner)

Gruffudd Line (Einion, Rhys)

Guelders Line (Kleve, Leiningen, Stewart, von Arkel)

Gullett Line (Barnes, Burnett, Housh, McClain, Mills, Robinson, Trice)

Guthrie Line (Maule)

Gwilim Line (Mansel, Richard)

Gwilym (ap Jenkin) Line (Gwilym, Llywelyn, Thomas)

Gwilym (ap Philip) Line (Davydd, Llywelyn)

Hager Line (Fishback, Friesenhagen)

Hallyn Line (Button, John, Morgan)

Halyburton (James) Line (Graham, Maule, Scrymgeour)

Halyburton (Patrick) Line (Douglas, Ruthven, Seton)

Hamilton Line (Beaton, Campbell, Douglas, Livingston, Stewart)

Hanback Line (Coons, Jung, Schneider)

Hanscombe Line (Ensam, Samm)

Harbour Line (Packwood, Snyder, Thomas)

Harpway Line (Havard, Howell, Ieuan)

Harrington Line (Loring, Stanley)

Haug Line (Yerian)

Havard (Jenkin) Line (Dafydd, Thomas, Vaughan, Watkin)

Havard (William) Line (Hywel)

Hawxhurst Line (Cole)

Hay (Thomas) Line (Hay, Stewart)

Hay (William) Line (Douglas, Hay)

Hayden Line (Butler, Drury)

Heimbach (Johannes) Line (Fischbach)

Heimbach (Philipp) Line (Fischbach, Otterbach)

Heisdorfer Line (Rung, Weber)

Hellings Line (Dungan, Parsons)

Hendrickse Line (Lubbertsen, Martense)

Henry Line (Boger, Schedler, Spies)

Hepburn Line (Borthwick, Home, Sinclair, Vaux, Wallace)

Herbert Line (Fleming, Morely)

Herr Line (Loetscher, Mylin)

Herries Line (Douglas, Lindsay, Maxwell)

Hickey Line (Barth, Robinson, Russell, Sinnott)

Hieronymus Line (Rimpler)

Hobson Line (Cary, Davis)

Hochstrasser Line (Meili)

Hoffman Line (Probst, Rimpler)

Holbrook Line (Weaver)

Holland (Albrecht) Line (Bourgogne, Brieg)

Holland (Edmund) Line (FitzAlan, Plantagenet, Touchet)

Hollingsworth Line (Atkinson, Ree, Withers)

Holman / Hahlman / Heilmann Line (Burckhart, Ellis, Rudolph)

Holtzclaw Line (Fishback, Flender, Otterbach)

Home Line (Hay, Hepburn, Lauder, Pepdie)

Houghton Line (Stanley)

Hoult Line (Jolliffe, Shircliffe)

Housh Line (Gullett)

Howel (ab Evan) Line (Gibbon)

Howel (ap David) Line (Eva, Hywel, Llywelyn, Richard)

Howland Line (Dickinson, Tilley)

Hoyt Line (Fowler)

Hulse Line (Bruen, Domville, Vernon)

Hungerford Line (Botreaux, Hussey, Peverell, White)

Hurst Line (Marshe, Tilley)

Hussey Line (Babb, Bachiler, Perkins, Wood)

Hyde Line (Lidiard, Lovingcotte, Yate)

Hywel Line (David, Ieuan, Morgan)

Ieuan (ap Gruffudd) Line (Button, Gawdyn)

Ieuan (ap Gwilym) Line (Rhys)

Ieuan (ap Jenkin) Line (Harpway)

Innes Line (Douglas, Fraser, Ogilvy)

Jacobsdochter Line (Jacobsdr, Van Kouwenhoven)

Jefferis Line (Chandler, Nowell, Roberts)

John (ab Ieuan) Line (Button, Gwilym, Thomas)

John (ap Jeffrey) Line (Dafydd, Havard, Owain, Rees)

John (ap Morgan) Line (Kemeys, Thomas)

Jenkin Line (Gruffudd, Llewelyn, Nicholas)

Jolliffe Line (Hoult, Sheppard, Slack, Springer)

Jordan (Robert) Line (Belson, Brasseur, Pleasants)

Jordan (Thomas) Line (Brasseur, Ellyson, Pleasants, Robinson, Thomas)

Jost (Christoph) Line (Bowers)

Jost (Conrad) Line (Bardt, Barth, Engel, Stammler, Wassermann)

Jung Line (Heimbach)

Kammer Line (Enderli, Loetscher, Witwer)

Keith (Alexander) Line (Ogilvy, Stewart)

Keith (William) Line (Erskine, Gordon, Graham, Troup)

Keller Line (Schatto, Stake)

Kemeys Line (David, Morgan)

Kennedy Line (Gordon, Maxwell, Seton, Stewart)

Kleve Line (Bourgogne, Guelders, Julich)

Knoertzer Line (Weigenthall)

Knolles Line (Chichele)

Knopf Line (Effinger, Irion)

Kunz Line (Berger)

Kyne Line (Chichele, Mansel, Pollidore)

Lamont Line (Campbell, MacDonald)

Lang Line (Schaf, Segmüller)

Large Line (Brown, Dungan)

Latham Line (Dungan)

Latsch Line (vor der Hardt)

Lauder Line (Fallow, Home, Landell)

Lawes Line (Munford, Wallbye)

Lazear Line (Linton, Plummer, Ryan, Webb)

Lennox Line (Campbell, Stuart)

Leslie Line (Halyburton, Hay, Seton, Sinclair)

Lewis (Evan of Cardigan) Line (Davies, Harries)

Lewis (Evan of Chester) Line (Babb, David, Prichard)

Lidiard Line (Hyde)

Lieveling Line (Slecht)

Lindeman Line (Arbogast, Bauer, Springer)

Lindsay (Alexander) Line (Campbell, Dunbar, Ogilvy, Stewart)

Lindsay (James) Line (Herries, Keith)

Linton Line (Boles, Lazear, McFadden, Richards)

Livingston Line (Dundas, Hamilton, Menteith)

Livingstone Line (Moncreiffe, Wemyss)

Llewelyn Line (Llewelyn)

Llywelyn (ap Gwilym) Line (Jenkin, Rhys)

Llywelyn (ap Morgan) Line (Dafydd, Llywelyn)

Llywelyn (ap Phillip) Line (Basset, Howel, Ieuan)

Loetscher Line (Herr, Kammer)

Lovell Line (Douglas, Graham)

Lovingcotte Line (Hyde)

Lubbertsen Line (Bergen, Hendrickse)

Lueck Line (Fischbach)

MacDonald (Allan) Line (Macintosh, Stewart)

MacDonald (Donald) Line (Leslie, Sutherland)

MacDonald (John) Line (Bisset, Lamont, O’Neil, O’Neill)

Mackenzie Line (Fraser, Grant, MacAulay, MacDougall, MacLeod, Macintosh, Stewart)

Mackintosh / Macintosh Line (Campbell, Gordon, Graham, Grant, MacDonald, Mackenzie, McQueen, Ogilvy)

MacLeod Line (Mackenzie, Mar)

Madog Line (Gruffudd)

Maelog Line (Chicheley, Daubeny)

Mainwaring Line (Foulshurst, Venables)

Malmberg Line (Andersdotter, Barth, Swanson)

Mansel Line (Fleming, Griffith, Gwilim, Kyne, Penrice, Turberville)

Marcey Line (Canes, Gill)

Marcross Line (Basset)

Marshe Line (Hurst)

Martin (James) Line (Bowman, McMurtrie, McMyrtre, Roberts, Smith, Trotter)

Martin (Llewellyn) Line (Abraham, Bowen, Davies, Morgan)

Martin (Richard) Line (Tichborne)

Martin (Thomas) Line (Roberts, Tucker)

Martz Line (Burkhart, Nave, Snider)

Massey Line (Barrier, Boles, Modrell)

Maule Line (Abercromby, Fleming, Gray, Guthrie, Halyburton, Lindsay, Mercer, Rollo)

Maxwell (Herbert) Line (Herries, Kennedy, Stewart)

Maxwell (Robert) Line (Boyd, Denniston, Lindsay)

May Line (Collet)

McClain Line (Brownlee, Gullett)

McCrosky / McCoskery Line (Clark, Faris, Stayman)

McFadden Line (Chapman, Heston, Linton)

McIntire Line (Bailey, Brown, Dick, Speece)

McMurtrie Line (Martin)

McMyrtre Line (Martin)

McQueen / Macqueen Line (Brown, Mackintosh)

Melford Line (Clifford, Need)

Melville Line (Boswell, Scott, Stewart)

Mercer Line (Barclay, Drummond, Maule, Stewart, Wardlaw)

Messerschmidt Line (Messerschmitz)

Messerschmitz Line (Becker, Messerschmidt)

Meyrick Line (Fleming, Harpway, Ieuan, Meurig, Richard, William)

Michell Line (Sidney)

Milner Line (Cary)

Minnes Line (Feddans, Van Voorhees)

Modrell Line (Massey)

Moncreiffe line (Campbell, Dundas, Livingstone, Murray)

Montgomerie Line (Boyd, MacDonald, Stuart)

Monypenny Line (Bethune, Wemyss)

Morgan (ap David) Line (Evan)

Morgan (ap David Powell) Line (David, Jenkin)

Morgan (ap Hugyn) Line (Marchudd)

Morgan (ap Jenkin) Line (Basset, Vaughan, Welsh, William)

Morgan (ap John) Line (David, Evan, William)

Morgan (ap Trahaearn) Line (Ieuan)

Mortimer (Edmund) Line (Percy, Plantagenet)

Mosby Line (Binford, Gostlyne, Woodson)

Müller Line (Beringer, Scherb, Schweitzer)

Munford Line (Lawes, Pleasants, Youngs)

Murray Line (Campbell, Colquhoun, Drummond, Graham, Grant, Gray, Keith, Stewart)

Mylin / Meilin / Meili Line (Baer, Bär, Herr, Hochstrasser)

Nash Line (Sloper, Withers)

Naunton Line (Almot, Barney, Brusyard, Doyley, Tymperley)

Nave Line (Martz)

Need Line (Cartlidge, Melford)

Nerbel Line (Barth, Flekkenstein)

Neubecker Line (Bauer, Dick)

Neville Line (Dacre, Percy, Stafford)

Nevyus / Nevius / Neeff Line (Becx, Bleijck, Schenck, Sleght, Van Voorhees)

Newell Line (Fowler)

Nohr Line (Peiffer, Raquet)

Nowell Line (Jefferis, Tatchell

Oberholtzer Line (Steman)

Ogilvy (Alexander of Findlater) Line (Abernethy, Glen, Gordon, Innes, Macintosh, Ramsay, Sinclair)

Ogilvy (David) Line (Glen, Ramsay, Rattray)

Ogilvy (James) Line (Durward, Graham, Kennedy, Lindsay, Sinclair)

Ogilvy (Patrick) Line (Keith, Oliphant)

Oldcastle Line (Pembridge, Whitney)

Oliphant Line (Ogilvy, Stewart, Wardlaw)

Oliver Line (Ackerly, Drake)

op den Graeff Line (Addams, Jansen, Peters, Pletges)

Otterbach Line (Heimbach, Holtzclaw, Stuell)

Owain (ap Gruffudd) Line (Hanmer, Scudamore)

Owain (ap Marchudd) Line (Jeffrey, Llywelyn, Morgan, Rhys)

Owen Line (Rhys)

Packwood Line (Harbour, Hough)

Painter / Bender Line (Boles, Bullinger, Erb)

Parish Line (Foster)

Parker Line (Barber)

Parsons Line (Hellings, Tarr)

Payne Line (Assiter, Drury)

Percy Line (Clifford, Mortimer, Neville)

Perkins Line (Hussey)

Peverell Line (Courtenay, Hungerford)

Pfister Line (Irion)

Phillips Line (Arrants)

Plantagenet Line (Castile, Holand)

Pleasants Line (Cary, Evered, Jordan, Larcombe, Marshall, Munford, Putrasse)

Pletges Line (Gobels, op den Graeff)

Plummer Line (Lazear, Smith, Wilson, Yate)

Polhemius Line (Sebring, Van der Werven)

Powell Line (Richard, Woolaston)

Price (John) Line (David, Evan, Jevan)

Price (Thomas) Line (Arrants, Lee)

Prichard Line (Basset, Evan, Fleming, Gamage, Howel, Lewis, Llewelyn, Meyrick)

Prickett Line (Springer)

Pride Line (Hallcott, Roberts)

Princehouse / Printzhausen Line (Speece)

Probst Line (Fischer, Fosselman, Hoffman)

Rapelje Line (Baudoin, Bergen, Trico)

Raquet Line (Didenhoff, Greiner, Nohr)

Rattray Line (Abercrombie, Kennedy, Ogilvy, Stewart)

Readshaw Line (Barber, Graver)

Ree Line (Hollingsworth)

Reimbach Line (Bauer)

Rhys (ap Hywel) Line (Hywel, Richard)

Rhys (ap Robert) Line (Hywel, Llywelyn)

Richard Line (Einon)

Ries Line (Crafft, Wassermann)

Rimpler Line (Hieronymus, Hoffman)

Ripley Line (Ballow, Thomas)

Roberts (John) Line (Jefferis, Withers)

Roberts (Morris) Line (Burnett, Martin, Pride, Step)

Roberts (Thomas) Line (Martin)

Robinson (John) Line (Fearon, Jordan)

Robinson (Melvin) Line (Bowman, Gullett, Hickey)

Robinson (Rossiter) Line (Conklin, Cunningham, Rossiter, Speece, Withers)

Rodburgh Line (Gamage)

Rollo / Rollock Line (Gray, Maule)

Ros Line (Clifford, Stafford)

Rose Line (Calder, Cheyne, Macintosh, Sutherland)

Rossiter Line (Addams, Robinson)

Roth Line (Groh)

Rudolph Line (Heilman, Ströhlin)

Rung Line (Barth, Greiner, Heisdorfer)

Russell (Richard) Line (Brown, Hickey)

Russell (Solomon) Line (Bowers, Brown, Ermentraudt)

Russell (Thomas) Line (Ludlow, Whitney)

Ruthven Line (Buttergask, Cranstoun, Drummond, Halyburton, Levington)

Rythe Line (Cowdray, Tichborne)

Saint John (Edward) Line (Aton, Bromflete)

Saint John (John) Line (Beauchamp, Bradshagh, Clifford, Pavley)

Saltzgeber Line (Friedli, Hoffman, Schweitzer)

Samm Line (Clark, Hanscombe, Surtees, Tidmarsh)

Savage Line (Brereton, Daniers, Stanley, Swynnerton, Trafford)

Schaeffer Line (Dorn)

Schaff Line (Christmann, Greiner, Lang)

Schäffer Line (Fosselmann, Vigelius)

Schantzenbach Line (Alterrriedt, Grim, Weber)

Schatto Line (Keller)

Schenck Line (Nevius, Van Kouwenhoven)

Scherb Line (Müller)

Schneider Line (Heimbach)

Scholt Line (Busch)

Schweitzer Line (Müller, Saltzgeber, Wolfer)

Scott Line (Melville)

Scrymgeour Line (Campbell, Carnegie, Cunninghame, Halyburton, Lyon, Maxwell, Ogilvy, Oliphant)

Scudamore Line (Ewias, Owain, Weston)

Sebring / Seuberinge Line (Bodine, Polhemius)

Segmüller / Seegmueller Line (Becker, Christ, Lang)

Sel Line (auf dem Berge, Busch)

Seton Line (Fleming, Sinclair, Stuart)

Shaw Line (Edmonstone)

Sheppard Line (Jolliffe, Watts)

Shircliffe / Shircliff / Shercliffe / Sheircliffe Line (Ford, Hoult, Spinke, Thompson, Wheeler)

Sibbald Line (Douglas)

Sidney Line (Gainsford, Michell)

Sinclair (Henry) Line (Douglas, Halyburton, Hepburn, Leslie, Ogilvy)

Sinclair (John) Line (Ogilvy)

Sinclair (William of Hermantoun) Line (Seton)

Sinnott Line (Colfer, Hickey, Nevill)

Slack / Sleght / Slecht Line (Barentsdr, Bergen, Bos, Downing, Ellis, Jolliffe, Lieveling, Nevyus)

Sloper (Thomas) Line (Bailly, Withers)

Sloper (William) Line (Nash)

Slye Line (Gerard, Wheeler)

Smith (Jeremiah) Line (Arrants, Dungan, Foster)

Smith (John) Line (Chandler, Webb)

Smith (Richard) Line (Dameron)

Smith (William) Line (Withers)

Snowe Line (Gerard)

Snyder / Snider / Schneider Line (Bowers, Harbour, Martz, Wagner)

Speece / Spies Line (Bowers, Henry, McIntire, Princehouse, Robinson, Stayman)

Springer (Christian) Line (Lindeman, Melchoir)

Springer (Dennis) Line (Hudson, Jolliffe, Prickett)

Stafford Line (Beauchamp, Neville)

Stainburne Line (Barber, Wyly)

Stake / Steeg / Steg Line (Barber, Degen, Haeppert, Keller, Stayman)

Stammler Line (Dietz, Jost)

Stanley (Thomas) Line (Goushill, Harrington, Lathom, Savage)

Stanley (William) Line (Arderne, Bromley, Gerard, Houghton, Savage)

Stayman / Steman Line (Baer, McCrosky, Oberholtzer, Speece, Stake)

Steiger Line (Kuntze)

Step Line (Roberts)

Stephens Line (Yate)

Stevenson Line (Brown)

Stewart (David) Line (Graham, Lindsay)

Stewart (James) Line (Rattray)

Stewart (John of Atholl) Line (Beaufort, Campbell, Grant, MacDougal, Rattray, Sinclair)

Stewart (John of Blackhall) Line (Campbell)

Stewart (John of Lorn) Line (Campbell, MacDougall, Stewart)

Stewart (King James) Line (Beaufort, Drummond, Guelders, Hamilton)

Stewart (Robert of Albany) Line (Graham, Stewart)

Stewart (Robert of Durisdeer) Line (MacDougall, Mercer)

Stewart (Walter) Line (Campbell, Edmonstone, Graham, Lennox)

St. Lo Line (Clyvedon, Botreaux)

Strangeways Line (Gerard, Orells)

Ströhlin Line (Rudolph)

Stourton Line (Beauchamp)

Stuart Line (Campbell, Lennox, Montgomerie, Seton)

Stuell Line (Beer, Otterbach)

Surtees Line (Martin, Samm, Whittamore)

Sutherland (Alexander) Line (Calder, MacDonald)

Sutherland (William) Line (Cheyne, Chisholm, Mureff / Murray, Rose)

Swanson Line (Andreasdotter, Malmberg)

Swift Line (Wing)

Swynnerton Line (Beke, Savage)

Tarbell Line (Conklin)

Tarrant Line (Sloper, Withers)

Taylor (John) Line (Brown)

Taylor (Robert) Line (Wood)

Taylor (Thomas) Line (Cary)

Teichmann Line (Conradi)

Thomas (ap Evan) Line (Cradoc, Fleming, Thomas, William)

Thomas (ap Gronwy) Line (Chicheley, Hywel, Ieuan)

Thomas (ap Gruffudd) Line (Dafydd, Havard, Roger)

Thomas (ap Gwilim) Line (Evan)

Thomas (ap Gwilim David) Line (Lleisan)

Thomas (ap Hywel) Line (Gwilym, Ieuan, Havard, Weston)

Thomas (ap Llywelyn) Line (Ieuan, Llywelyn)

Thomas (ap Morgan) Line (Basset, Halyn, Jevan, John, Kemeys)

Thomas (Charles) Line (Dameron, Harbour, Jordan, Ripley)

Thompson Line (Sheircliffe)

Tichborne Line (Martin, Rythe, Wandesford, White, Yate)

Tidmarsh Line (Barber, Hiorn, Samm)

Thurlow Line (Woolcott)

Tilley Line (Howland, Hurst)

Tomey Line (Auliffe, Cunningham)

Touchet / Tuchet Line (Holland, Mortimer, Whitney)

Townsend Line (Coles, Dickinson)

Trafford Line (Ashton, Gerard, Savage, Venables)

Trice Line (Eley, Gullett)

Trico Line (Rapelje, Sauvagie)

Trotter Line (Gibbs, Martin)

Turberville Line (Mansel)

Valoniis Line (Wardlaw)

Van Fisphe Line (vor der Hardt)

Van Kouwenhoven Line (Cool, Jacobsdochter, Schenck)

Van Voorhees Line (Minnes, Nevyus, Seuberinge)

Vaughan (Hopkin) Line (Dennis)

Vaughan (Roger) Line (Devereux, Gam, Jenkin)

Vaughan (Thomas) Line (Vaughan)

Vaughan (William) Line (Evan, Evans, Gam, Havard, Vaughan, Whitney)

Veatch Line (Ellis, Gakerlin)

Venables (Hugh) Line (Cotton, Mainwaring)

Venables (William) Line (Massy, Trafford)

Vernon Line (Foulshurst, Hulse)

Vigelius Line (Schäffer)

Von Arkel Line (Egmond, Jülich)

Vor der Hardt (Hen) Line (Sel, van Fisphe, vor der Hardt)

Vor der Hardt (Henchen) Line (vor der Hardt)

Wagner Line (Bidel, Goeller, Groh)

Walcott / Wolcott / Woolcott Line (Brownlee, Dawe, Emerson, Phippen, Thurlow)

Wandesford Line (Colville, Musters, Tichborne)

Wardlaw Line (Lauder, Mercer, Oliphant, Valoniis)

Warren Line (Youngs)

Wassermann Line (Jost, Ries)

Watts Line (Blaugdone, Sheppard)

Weaver Line (Dungan, Holbrook)

Weber Line (Schantzenbach, Weigenthall)

Weigenthall Line (Knoertzer, Weber)

Wells Line (Yate)

Welsh Line (Philip)

Wemyss Line (Erskine, Livingstone)

Weston Line (Hywel, Scudamore)

Wheeler Line (Shircliffe, Slye)

White Line (Gainsford, Hungerford, Tichborne)

Whitney Line (Cromwell, Oldcastle, Russell, Touchet, Vaughan)

Whittamore Line (Messenger, Surtees)

William (ap John) Line (Howel)

William (ap Rhys) Line (Hopkin, Jevan, Owen)

William (ap Thomas) Line (Richard)

Wilson (Edward) Line (Plummer)

Wilson (Robert?) Line (Brownlee)

Wing Line (Bachiler, Dungan, Swift)

Withers Line (Collet, Davis, Holllingsworth, Nash, Roberts, Robinson, Sloper, Smith, Tarrant, Wollaston)

Witmer Line (Baer, Eby, Engle)

Wolfer Line (Durnbläser, Schweitzer)

Wood Line (Hussey, Taylor)

Woodson Line (Ferris, Mosby)

Woolaston Line (Powell, Withers)

Wright Line (Barber, Cartlidge)

Yate Line (Ashenden, Hyde, Plummer, Stephens, Tichborne, Wells)

Yerian / Jurian / Irion Line (Bollin, Bowers, Conradi, Dorn, Fosselman, Haug, Knopf, Pfister)

Youngs (Joseph) Line (Conklin, Warren)

Youngs (William) Line (Munford, Muns)

JUST RELEASED! The Omnibus Ancestry, 3rd Edition

Or if you prefer formal titles, The Omnibus Ancestry: 619 Documented American and European Lines.  This newly revised edition extends many ancestral lines, drops a small handful, and adds over 30 new ones since the 2nd edition. As indicated by the title, a total of 619 are now covered, with many carried back to about the year 1350. This is the most up-to-date and definitive ancestry of the Boles-Bowers and Barth-Hickey families across their many limbs and branches.

THE OMNIBUS ANCESTRY.3rd.Lulu.cover.c

The book updates numerous previous publications in handy, condensed, corrected, and referenced form.  Besides the previous editions of The Omnibus Ancestry, the 10 books it updates include:

  • Barth-Hickey Ancestry
  • Bowers-Russell Ancestry
  • Ellis Ancestors: Some Immigrants, Colonists, and Pioneers
  • Foster Ancestors: Some Europeans, Immigrants, Colonists, and Pioneers
  • Snyder-Harbour Ancestry
  • Some Earlier Americans: Boles-Linton Ancestors
  • Speece-Robinson Ancestry
  • Stayman-McCrosky Ancestry
  • The Bower-Bowers Descendants of Johann Jacob Bauer
  • Withers-Davis Ancestry

A full list of the ancestral lines appears at the Bolesbooks web site.

Notes are used to elaborate on the text, to explain the logic behind conclusions, to indicate where further generations may be found before 1350, to provide references, and to make suggestions for further research.  However, the notes are listed separately and do not intrude should you prefer a smooth reading of the text.

There’s never been a better time to check out The Omnibus Ancestry!  To access a preview on the Lulu publication page, please click here.

32. Our Cousins The Scientists: John Bartram, William Bartram, and John Dalton

My wife and I are scientists — behavioral scientists, to be sure, but scientists nevertheless. Today such occupations are not unusual, but two or three hundred years ago they were almost unheard of in a world where most people made their living off the land.

I have written before about two protoscientists in our family tree. Thomas Ashton and Edmund Trafford, of co. Lancaster, England, practiced alchemy in the 15th century, claiming to have “discovered an elixir that restored youth and changed base metals into gold and silver”.

Not truly scientists, alchemists nevertheless displayed certain scientific characteristics. These included notions of causation – one idea, for example, was that different metals were alloys that could be transmuted into precious metal by driving out impurities – and the use of experiments to further knowledge. They departed from science in the haphazardness of their efforts, the use of religious metaphor to support their endeavors (e.g., Christ’s torments reflected in the alchemical torment of metals), and the failure to properly cumulate results (which if nothing else should have led to an earlier abandonment of their efforts). As a result in the end they contributed little to the science of chemistry [7, 8].

However, there are three true scientists in our family background who made more substantial contributions than the alchemists. Unlike Thomas Ashton and Edmund Trafford they are not direct ancestors, but rather cousins of varying degree.

John Bartram

John Bartram was born in 1699, the son of William Bartram, a Quaker of Darby township, (now) Delaware county, Pennsylvania, and the grandson of John Bartram, who in 1682 had immigrated to the colony with his family from co. Derby, England.

John educated himself in botany, medicine, and surgery while supporting himself as a farm laborer. In 1728 he created the first American botanical garden in Kingsessing, now part of Philadelphia and still in existence as “Bartram’s Garden”, a national historic landmark [1].

He began actively collecting native American plants and seeds of all types, many of which he forwarded to London naturalist Peter Collinson. For that purpose he began undertaking long-range travel across the eastern half of the American continent. A keen observer, he experimented with plant hybrids in his Kingsessing garden. However, he was not a systematist like Carolus Linnaeus, the creator of the genus and species classifications we know today. Nevertheless Linnaeus called him the greatest “natural botanist” in the world, and in 1765 George III appointed Bartram as Botanist to the King. John died in 1777 [1, 2].

John Bartram
John Bartram (reputed)

Today Bartram is best known for his 1751 book, Observations on the Inhabitants, Soil, Divers Productions, etc., Made by John Bartram in His Travels from Pennsylvania to Onondaga, Oswego, and the Lake Ontario. He is commonly regarded as “the father of American botany” [1].

Through the Bowers and Stayman side of the family, my relatives and I descend from the scientist’s grandfather, the immigrant John Bartram. We are therefore first cousins several times removed from the botanist.

William Bartram

Like his father John, William Bartram (1739-1823) was a noted botanist and writer, as well as an artist, naturalist, ethnographer, and explorer. His Travels Through North & South Carolina, Georgia, East & West Florida, the Cherokee Country, the Extensive Territories of the Muscogulges, or Creek Confederacy, and the Country of the Chactaws (1791) was initially published in Philadelphia, but soon after was reprinted in London, Dublin, Berlin, and Paris, the latter two places in translation [1].

William Bartram
William Bartram

Although he discovered a number of new plants – and resented that he did not receive more recognition for it – William’s fame as a naturalist is based on his great skill as an illustrator of both flora and fauna. This was something that was evident by his teens, and he became progressively more accomplished as he aged. He also continued to maintain the garden at Kingsessing, to which he added new species [3].

Bartram_House_May_2002c
John and William Bartram home and garden

 

In 1808, William sat for a portrait by the famous artist Charles Wilson Peale. A reproduction accompanies. My close relatives and I are William’s second cousins several times removed.

John Dalton

John Dalton was born in 1766 in Eaglesfield, co. Cumberland, England, the son of a Quaker weaver named Joseph Dalton. Joseph’s parents were Jonathan and Abigail (Fearon) Dalton. It was Abigail who provided our ancestral link, for my close relatives and I descend from the Fearon family [4, 5].

At a young age John undertook a course on surveying and navigation, and came to the attention of Eliju Robinson, his relation and a man of means who provided further educational opportunity. He began teaching school in Eaglesfield at the tender age of 12, and studied under John Gough, a blind scholar who taught him the classical languages, mathematics, and natural philosophy [5].

John began his scientific inquiries with a weather diary, using a barometer, thermometer, and hygroscope of his own construction. In 1793, he became a teacher of mathematics, natural philosophy, and chemistry in the New College of Manchester. A year later he read a paper on his own defective color vision to the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester, to which he had been elected a short time previously [5].

In 1795, Dalton began the investigations into chemistry and physics that were to lead to his greatest successes. His early work was on the circulation of heat in fluids, and on the relationship between temperature and compression. In the course of studying diffusion, he began to experiment with different elemental gases such as oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen. Studying the absorption of the gases by water, he speculated that absorption was determined by the weight of the gas particles. Although that proved incorrect, it led directly to his successful attempts to assign weights to elements [5].

Developing his ideas over the opening years of the 19th century, Dalton proposed that elements are made of tiny particles called atoms, which differ in size and mass from the atoms of other elements. In addition, elements were proposed to combine in whole-number ratios during chemical reactions to form compounds [4].

Dalton proceeded to publish tables of atomic weights, starting with only five elements, including hydrogen which he assigned a weight of one — a unit now unofficially called a dalton. By 1808, he had included 20 elements in his scheme, and by 1827, 36. These concepts and discoveries allowed the rapid advancement of the field of chemistry [4].

John_Dalton_by_Thomas_Phillips,_1835
John Dalton

Today Dalton is regarded as the father of atomic theory [4]. He died in 1844, having achieved fellowship in the Royal Society, corresponding membership in the French Académie des Sciences, and foreign honorary membership in the American Academy of Arts and Sciences [6].

My close relatives and I are related to John Dalton through the Bowers and Snyder side of the family. We descend from John Fearon, Sr., of Eaglesfield (d. Jan 1661/2), the grandfather of Abigail Fearon Dalton. John Dalton is our third cousin several times removed [4].

The Bartram genealogical material cited in this article, and our connection to it, is available in the Stayman-McCrosky Ancestry, which can be downloaded at Lulu.com. The Dalton-Fearon material is in The Omnibus Ancestry: 619 Documented American and European Lines, likewise downloadable at Lulu.com.


Notes

[1] Boles, D.B., & Boles, H.W. (2000). Stayman-McCrosky Ancestry. Tuscaloosa, AL: private print. Available for download at Lulu.com.

[2] Information retrieved from http://biography.yourdictionary.com/john-bartram (2017).

[3] Slaughter, T.P. (1996). The Natures of John and William Bartram. NY: Alfred A. Knopf.

[4] Boles, D.B. (2017). The Omnibus Ancestry: 619 Documented American and European Lines.  Available for download at Lulu.com.

[5] Millington, J.P. (1906). John Dalton. London: J.M. Dent & Co.

[6] Information retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Dalton (2017).

[7] von Meyer, E. (1891). A History of Chemistry from Earliest Times to the Present Day. London: Macmillan and Co.

[8] Nummedal, T. (2013). Alchemy and religion in Christian Europe. Ambix, vol. 60, pp. 311-322.


Picture Attributions

John Bartram: Public domain. A controversial portrait, it is not universally accepted as one of John; and if it is of John, it may nor may not be from life. Nevertheless it has inscribed on the back, in an apparent 18th-century hand, “Portrait of John Bartram of Darby died 1777 … C.W. Peale Artist. Property of Isaac Bartram 1795.” (Slaughter, op. cit.).

William Bartram portrait: Public domain.

John and William Bartram home and garden: “Jtfry at English Wikipedia”, Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license.

John Dalton: Public domain.

31. Three Printed Books

Although my blog entries have emphasized downloadable publications, Bolesbooks actually offers three printed books that are otherwise unavailable in electronic form. Yes, that’s right: Real paper and real binding! They’re described below, but for access to indexes, prices, and ordering information, please visit the Bolesbooks web site.

Barth-Hickey Ancestry

(358 pages, softbound). With the additional familes of Bodine, Bowman, Brown, Brownlee, Burnett, Crocheron, Drury, Finch, French, Greiner, Gullett, Heisdorfer, Housh, Langham, Malmberg, Martin, McClain, McMurtrie, Millard, Mills, Phillips, Reynolds, Robinson, Rung, Russell, Shercliffe, Sinnott, Spinke, Swanson, Wilson, and Wolcott. Includes pictures.  Limited copies remaining; will not be reprinted.

The Barth-Hickey Ancestry covers a particularly strong concentration of families from St. Mary’s co, Md, especially Catholic families in the 1600s and 1700s. Other major geographic areas variously inhabited by Protestant or Catholic ancestors were Iowa, Ind, and NJ; Macon co, Ill; Nelson co, Ky; Washington co, Pa; Somerset co, Md; and Augusta co, Va. Other names, areas, and periods are also represented.

Speece-Robinson Ancestry

(222 pages, softbound). Co-author Harold W. Boles. With the additional families of Addams, Altruth, Auliffe, Bailey, Brown, Cole, Conklin, Cunningham, Dick, Dobbs, Doors, Flexney, Gobels, Hinds, McIntire, op den Graeff, Pletges, Princehouse, Rossiter, Tarpley, Tomey, and Williams. And Addenda on the Adams, Bachiler, Dungan, Holbrook, Large, Latham, Swift, Weaver, and Wing Families. Includes pictures.  Very limited copies remaining; will not be reprinted.

The Speece-Robinson Ancestry covers a number of families from Champaign and Shelby counties, Ohio; Frederick co, Va; Berkeley and Morgan counties, WVa; Bucks and Philadelphia counties, Pa; what is now Union co, NJ; New England; and England, Ireland, and Germany. The American coverage is particularly strong in the 1700s and 1800s, but there is a substantial segment of material from the 1600s as well. Other names, areas, and periods are also represented.

Withers-Davis Ancestry

(427 pages, hardbound). Co-author Harold W. Boles. With the additional families of Abraham, Babb, Bachiler, Chandler, Collet, David, Davies, Hollingsworth, Hussey, Jefferis, Lewis, Martin, May, Nash, Nowell, Perkins, Powell, Ree, Roberts, Sloper, Tarrant, Wise, Wood, and Woolaston. Also numerous Welsh families ancestral to William, David, and Ralph Lewis, and John Bevan, plus their royal descents.  Will not be reprinted.

The Withers-Davis Ancestry covers a large concentration of families from the area of Chester and Delaware counties, Pennsylvania; New Castle co, Delaware; New England; co. Wilts, England; and co. Glamorgan and surrounding areas of Wales. Many though by no means all of the families were Quaker. Coverage in America is particularly heavy in the 1600s and 1700s, making the book indispensable to those seeking their colonial roots. Other names, areas, and periods are also represented.

books.cover

 

21. The Power of Convergence, Part 2: O Brother, Where Art Thou?

In a previous blog entry, 17. The Power of Convergence, Part 1: Francis Drake, I described the use of the web to find a reference imperfectly cited to me about 45 years previously. Entering three names said to appear in the record, I quickly located the reference using Google Search, and found that it was available in free, downloadable form. That in turn allowed me to dispell the myth that my ancestor Francis Drake, of New Hampshire and New Jersey, was originally of West Meath, Ireland.

Thus the convergent power of the web, something unimagined 45 years ago, provided information that significantly impacted on a genealogical conclusion. Each of the three names entered alone produced thousands of hits — to be specific, about 695,000 for Francis Drake, 63,400 for Thomas Temple, and 231,000 for Richard Saunders — but when entered simultaneously, convergence was found on one unique source that matched information I had been given decades earlier. Using it, I was able to draw a negative conclusion about the origin of my ancestor .

But what about more positive instances? Can convergence be used to support, not just dispel relationships? In my experience the answer is yes — especially if you start with a known “starter” relationship.

“Starter” Relationships

A “starter” relationship is between two people, known to be of the same family, each connected to a number of possibly associated records. Looking for overlap among the possible associations is what allows for convergence. For example if a possible origin (among several) of one person matches a possible origin (among several) of a related person, there is a fair chance that the match indicates their common origin.

Brotherly love

In my experience the starter relationship is usually between brothers. This is probably due to the fact that brothers usually have the same surname, while married sisters, or a married sister and a brother, typically do not. Therefore brothers tend to be known to a greater extent than other sibling pairs.

To illustrate the power of convergence in such situations, I briefly present two case studies involving brothers.

The Slack Brothers

In tracing my Slack ancestors, attention quickly settled on two contemporaries who settled in Mason county, Kentucky, about the same time prior to 1800. One, John Slack, seemed most likely to be our ancestor, but for a time we could not rule out the other, Jacob Slack. I wrote about this problem in my very first blog entry (1. John Slack of Mason County, Kentucky: Poverty and a Glittering Past), and there is no point in rehashing it here. For present purposes it is enough to state that we believed the two men to be brothers. How could this fact be used to determine their origin?

Census records in this case proved to provide the initial point of convergence. By examining the 1790 census nationwide, using the web resource Ancestry.com, it was found that a John Slack and a Jacob Slack both appeared as heads of household in the 1790 census of Harford county, Maryland. With research attention turned to Maryland, I quickly located an 1816 deed by which Jacob Slack of Mason county, Kentucky, sold a share of land in Harford county. There could be no doubt: The intermediate place of origin of the two brothers was Harford county.

But where were they from before that? Web searches turned up the next point of convergence. John and Jacob Sleght, sons of Hendrick Sleght, were baptized respectively in May 1746 and July 1757 in Bucks county, Pennsylvania, dates initially found on the web but later confirmed in printed church records. A number of other circumstances matched as well — among them, evidence from Kentucky and Maryland that John was significantly older than Jacob, and a gravestone in Kentucky giving an age for Jacob that was closely consistent with the baptismal record.

This discovery made it possible not just to identify the father of the brothers, but to add multiple ancestral lines tracing back in some cases many generations. It was a major windfall discovery.

While there were a number of facts possibly associated with John, and a number possibly associated with Jacob, it was the convergence of information across both that allowed the discovery of their origin. To fully appreciate the importance of that, consider what would have happened had I known only of John Slack. I would have found multiple possible places of origin in census and tax records, and would have been at a loss when attempting to identify which pertained. It was the known “starter” relationship of John to Jacob that solved the problem.

The Altrate (Altred) Brothers

My ancestor Christopher Altrate (Altred; Alteriedt) arrived at Philadelphia in 1749, and was in Frederick county, Virginia, by 1760. He resided in Winchester, and there became one of the founders of the town’s Evangelical Lutheran church. In his will, made in 1765, he referred to property that would come to him in Youghstousen, Germany. Christopher had an apparent brother named Michael Altred, who had been fined in 1761 in Frederick county for being absent from a muster, and who stood security for Christopher’s widow when she administered his estate.

The name of the German location proved problematic, because there is no Youghtstousen in Germany. A query directed to a genealogy forum elicited the same response from two native German speakers: In their opinion the location was probably Jagsthausen, in Württemberg.

Convergence in this case came from the ongoing indexing of German birth and christening records by the LDS Church. A record for Christoph Alteried showed a birth date of 16 Apr 1724, as recorded in the Evangelisch church, Ruchsen, Baden. That of his brother Georg Michael Alteriedt occurred on 5 Oct 1725, recorded in the same church. Both were sons of Johann Friederich Alteried by his wife Maria Agnes. Then came the best part, the discovery that Jagsthausen is only 6.5 road miles from Ruchsen [1]. The deal was sealed.

Again, the case illustrates the use of web-based information to provide convergence between brothers in a known starter relationship, this time using the online FamilySearch facility of the LDS Church (familysearch.org). Discovering the parents made it possible to trace a number of further generations in multiple family lines.

Other Brothers

A number of other examples could be described. They include the Barber family of Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, and co. York, England; the Bowers (Bauer) family of Berks county, Pennsylvania, Frederick co, Virginia, and Baden, Germany; and the Mosby family of Charles City county, Virginia, and co. Norfolk, England.   For full descriptions and references, and the ancestries of these families as well as those of the Slack and Altrate families, see The Omnibus Ancestry, available for download at Lulu.com.

In all of these cases, it was knowledge that two men were brothers that allowed the convergent power of the web to identify their common origin.

Caveat

Keep in mind that merely finding the names of two brothers in earlier records at the same location is often insufficient to establish that the records concern those brothers. To take an extreme example, starting with the names of two brothers named John and James Smith would likely turn up hundreds of possible convergences, only one of which may be the proverbial needle in the haystack.

It’s only in the instance of rare names (first and/or last) that names alone might lead one to assume identity. The Altrates/Altreds are possibly a case in point, as the surname is rare, especially when appearing with the given names Christopher and Michael.

Nevertheless in all the cases cited, additional information was available that supported identity. The Altrates/Altreds were thought to have a property interest in Jagsthausen, only a few miles from the convergent location of Ruchsen. The Slack brothers, while having a moderately uncommon surname, were chiefly identified as the sons of Hendrick through their age spread and a close correspondence in birth and christening dates, along with other considerations that were described in the original blog entry.

Thus when applying a starter relationship to look for convergence on a common location, all known facts should be exploited to either confirm or disconfirm the convergence. In this regard the enterprise is similar to other applications of the genealogist’s craft.


Note:

[1] The sharp-eyed reader will have noticed that Ruchsen is in Baden while Jagsthausen is in Württemberg. Until 1846 Ruchsen was an exclave of Baden, being completely surrounded by Württemberg. In that year territories were exchanged that gave it land access to the rest of Baden. However, a border remained between Ruchsen and Jagsthausen (information retrieved from https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruchsen, 2016).


Picture attribution: Owner Jen’s Art & Soul, Brotherly Love, retrieved from https://www.flickr.com/photos/frazzledjen/177002473. Used under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license.